This work was supported by NSF Grant ATM-0129892 and by the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship, and NSF Graduate Research Fellowship. Ming Xue was also supported by NSF Grants EEC-0313747, ATM-0331594, and ATM-0530814 and by a DOT–FAA grant via DOC-NOAA NA17RJ1227. The authors thank the OU Supercomputing Center for Education and Research (OSCER) for the use of its massively parallel Linux cluster. Some of the simulations were also performed on the National Science Foundation Terascale Computing System at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center.
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