The first author thanks Drs. Melanie Wetzel and Pat Arnott, who were instructors for the field research course. The logistical support of the Steamboat Ski and Resort Corporation is also acknowledged. The authors also thank Dr. Jonathan Pleim for information on the Pleim–Chang PBL and Dr. David Whiteman for reviewing an early version of this article. The MM5 runs were performed on the Nevada Environmental Computing Grid of the ACES program with assistance from Dr. Shulan Liu and on the Sierra Cluster of the DRI’s Mesoscale Dynamics and Modeling Laboratory (MDML) with assistance from Dr. Boro Grubišić. The ACES program (http://www.aces.dri.edu) has been funded by an NSF EPSCoR grant to the Nevada System of Higher Education, and the MDML Sierra Cluster was funded by NSF Grant ATM-0116666 to DRI. This research was supported in part by the NSF Grant ATM-0242886. Figures were drawn with GrADS, created by Brian Doty. DRI is an equal opportunity service provider and employer and is a permittee of the Medicine-Bow and Routt National Forests.
Borys, R. D., , and M. A. Wetzel, 1997: Storm Peak Laboratory: A research, teaching, and service facility for the atmospheric sciences. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 2115–2123.
Burk, S. D., , and W. T. Thompson, 1989: A vertically nested regional numerical weather prediction model with second-order closure physics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117 , 2305–2324.
Grell, F. A., , J. Dudhia, , and D. R. Stauffer, 1994: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398 + STR, 122 pp. [Available from NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].
Hong, S-Y., , and H-L. Pan, 1996: Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 2322–2339.
Janjić, Z. I., 1994: The step-mountain eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection, viscous sublayer, and turbulence closure schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 927–945.
Mellor, G. L., , and T. Yamada, 1974: A hierarchy of turbulence closure models for planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 1791–1806.
Pleim, J. E., , and J. S. Chang, 1992: A non-local closure model for vertical mixing in the convective boundary layer. Atmos. Environ., 26A , 965–981.
Shafran, P. C., , N. L. Seaman, , and G. A. Gayno, 2000: Evaluation of numerical predictions of boundary layer structure during the Lake Michigan Ozone Study. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 412–426.
Smith, R. B., and Coauthors, 1997: Local and remote effects of mountains on weather: Research needs and opportunities. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 877–892.
Whiteman, C. D., 1982: Breakup of temperature inversions in deep mountain valleys. Part I: Observations. J. Appl. Meteor., 21 , 270–289.
Whiteman, C. D., 1990: Observations of thermally developed wind systems in mountainous terrain. Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain, Meteor. Monogr., No. 45, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 5–42.
Whiteman, C. D., , X. Bian, , and S. Zhong, 1999: Wintertime evolution of the temperature inversion in the Colorado Plateau Basin. J. Appl. Meteor., 38 , 1103–1117.
Whiteman, C. D., , S. Zhong, , W. J. Shaw, , J. M. Hubbe, , X. Bian, , and J. Mittelstadt, 2001: Cold pools in the Columbia Basin. Wea. Forecasting, 16 , 432–447.
Whiteman, C. D., , B. Pospichal, , S. Eisenbach, , P. Weihs, , C. B. Clements, , R. Steinacker, , E. Mursch-Radlgruber, , and M. Dorninger, 2004: Inversion breakup in small Rocky Mountain and Alpine basins. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 1069–1082.
Xiu, A., , and J. E. Pleim, 2001: Development of a land surface model. Part I: Application in a mesoscale meteorological model. J. Appl. Meteor., 40 , 192–209.
Zängl, G., 2002: An improved method for computing horizontal diffusion in a sigma-coordinate model and its application to simulations over mountainous topography. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 1423–1432.
Zängl, G., 2003: The impact of upstream blocking, drainage flow, and the geostrophic pressure gradient on the persistence of cold-air pools. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129 , 117–137.
Zängl, G., 2005a: Formation of extreme cold-air pools in elevated sinkholes: An idealized numerical process study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 925–941.
Zhong, S., , C. D. Whiteman, , X. Bian, , W. J. Shaw, , and J. M. Hubbe, 2001: Meteorological processes affecting the evolution of a wintertime cold air pool in the Columbia Basin. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 2600–2613.