We greatly appreciate Jan Paegle’s comments on the manuscript. This study has been partially supported by the following projects: UBACyT X155 and X266, CONICET PIP 5417, ANPCyT PICT 25269, NOAA/OGP GC03-011, and ANPCyT PICT 2003 07-14420. SALLJEX has been supported by NOAA/OGP, NSF (ATM0106776), FAPESP Brazil (Grant 01/13816-1), ANPCYT PICT 07-06671, and UBACyT 055 Argentina.
Berbery, E. H., , and E. A. Collini, 2000: Springtime precipitation and water vapor flux over southeastern South America. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 1328–1346.
Blackadar, A. K., 1957: Boundary layer wind maxima and their significance for the growth of nocturnal inversions. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 38 , 283–290.
Bonner, W. D., , and J. Paegle, 1970: Diurnal variations in boundary layer winds over the south-central United States in summer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 98 , 735–744.
Byerle, L., , and J. Paegle, 2002: Description of the seasonal cycle of low-level flows flanking the Andes and their interannual variability. Meteorologica, 27 , 71–88.
Campetella, C. M., , and C. S. Vera, 2002: The influence of the Andes Mountains on the South American low-level flow. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 .1826, doi:10.1029/2002GL015451.
Chen, S., , Y. Kuo, , W. Wang, , Z. Tao, , and B. Cui, 1998: A modeling case study of heavy rainstorms along the Mei-Yu Front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 2330–2351.
Chen, T. C., , and W. R. Cotton, 1983: A one-dimensional simulation of the stratocumulus-capped mixed layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 25 , 289–321.
Chen, T. C., , and J. A. Kpaeyeh, 1993: The synoptic-scale environment associated with the low-level jet of the Great Plains. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 416–420.
Davis, C. A., , and M. L. Weisman, 1994: Balanced dynamics of mesoscale vortices produced in simulated convective systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 2005–2030.
Douglas, M., , M. Nicolini, , and C. Saulo, 1998: Observational evidences of a low level jet east of the Andes during January–March 1998. Meteorologica, 23 , 63–72.
Fernandez, A., , and G. Necco, 1982: Wind characteristics in the free atmosphere at Argentinean radiosounding stations (in Spanish). Meteorologica, 13 , 7–21.
Ferreira, R. N., , T. M. Rickenbach, , D. L. Herdies, , and L. M. V. Carvalho, 2003: Variability of South American convective cloud systems and tropospheric circulation during January–March 1998 and 1999. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 961–973.
Figueroa, S. N., , P. Satyamurty, , and P. L. da Silva Dias, 1995: Simulations of the summer circulation over the South American region with an eta coordinate model. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 1573–1584.
Fritsch, J. M., , and R. A. Maddox, 1981: Convectively driven mesoscale weather systems aloft. Part I: Observations. J. Appl. Meteor., 20 , 9–19.
Gandu, A. W., , and J. E. Geisler, 1991: A primitive equations model study of the effect of topography on the summer circulation over tropical South America. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 1822–1836.
Inzunza, B. J., , and G. J. Berri, 1991: Wind and vapor transport behavior in the lower troposphere over northern Argentina (in Spanish). Meteorologica, 17 , 17–25.
Joyce, R. J., , J. E. Janowiak, , P. A. Arkin, , and P. Xie, 2004: CMORPH: A method that produces global precipitation estimates from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution. J. Hydrometeor., 5 , 487–503.
Marengo, J. A., , M. W. Douglas, , and P. L. Silva Dias, 2002: The South American low-level jet east of the Andes during the 1999 LBA-TRMM and LBA-WET AMC campaign. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .8079, doi:10.1029/2001JD001188.
Marengo, J. A., , W. R. Soares, , C. Saulo, , and M. Nicolini, 2004: Climatology of the low-level jet east of the Andes as derived from the NCEP–NCAR reanalyses: Characteristics and temporal variability. J. Climate, 17 , 2261–2280.
McNider, R. T., , and R. A. Pielke, 1981: Diurnal boundary-layer development over sloping terrain. J. Atmos. Sci., 38 , 2198–2212.
Mellor, G. L., , and T. Yamada, 1982: Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 20 , 851–875.
Mesinger, F., , and A. Arakawa, 1976: Numerical methods used in atmospheric models. GARP Publ. 17, 64 pp.
Nesbitt, S. W., , and E. J. Zipser, 2003: The diurnal cycle of rainfall and convective intensity according to three years of TRMM measurements. J. Climate, 16 , 1456–1475.
Nicolini, M., , and A. C. Saulo, 2000: Eta characterization of the 1997–1998 warm season Chaco jet cases. Preprints, Sixth Int. Conf. on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography, Santiago de Chile, Chile, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 330–331.
Nicolini, M., , K. M. Waldron, , and J. Paegle, 1993: Diurnal oscillations of low-level jets, vertical motion, and precipitation: A model case study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 2588–2610.
Nogués-Paegle, J., , and K. C. Mo, 1997: Alternating wet and dry conditions over South America during summer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 279–291.
Ruiz, J., , C. Saulo, , Y. García Skabar, , and P. Salio, 2006: The representation of a mesoscale convective system using RAMS model (in Spanish). Meteorologica, in press.
Salio, P., , M. Nicolini, , and A. C. Saulo, 2002: Chaco low-level jet events characterization during the austral summer season. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .4816, doi:10.1029/2001JD001315.
Salio, P., , E. J. Zipser, , M. Nicolini, , and C. Liuct, 2004: Diurnal cycle of mesoscale convective systems over southeastern South America. 14th Int. Precipitation Cloud Conf., Bologna, Italy, 13–16.
Saulo, A. C., , M. Nicolini, , and S. C. Chou, 2000: Model characterization of the South American low-level flow during the 1997–1998 spring–summer season. Climate Dyn., 16 , 867–881.
Saulo, A. C., , M. E. Seluchi, , and M. Nicolini, 2004: A case study of a chaco low-level jet event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 2669–2683.
Seluchi, M. E., , A. C. Saulo, , M. Nicolini, , and P. Satyamurty, 2003: The northwestern Argentinean low: A study of two typical events. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 2361–2378.
Smagorinsky, J., 1963: General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. Part I: The basic experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 91 , 99–164.
Souza, E. P., , and E. M. Silva, 2002: Impact of the implementation of a shallow cumulus parameterization in a mesoscale model. Scheme description and sensitivity test (in Portuguese). Rev. Bras. Meteor., 8 , 33–42.
Tripoli, G. J., , and W. R. Cotton, 1982: The Colorado State University three-dimensional cloud/mesoscale model- Part I: General theoretical framework and sensitivity experiments. J. Rech. Atmos., 16 , 185–220.
Uccellini, L., , and D. Johnson, 1979: The coupling of upper and lower tropospheric jet streaks and implications for the development of severe convective storms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107 , 682–703.
Zhong, S., , J. D. Fast, , and X. Bian, 1996: A case study of the Great Plains low-level jet using wind profiler network data and a highresolution mesoscale model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 785–806.
Zipser, E., , P. Salio, , and M. Nicolini, 2004: Mesoscale convective systems activity during SALLJEX and the relationship with SALLJ. CLIVAR Exchanges, No. 9, International CLIVAR Project Office, Southampton, United Kingdom, 14–16.