We express our sincere appreciation to Bill Skamarock, S. R. Rizvi (NCAR), Thomas Nehrkorn, George Modica (AER), Thomas Kaminski, and Ralf Giering (FastOpt, Germany) for their help during the development of the WRF tangent linear and adjoint models. Discussions with Jordan Powers, Kevin Manning, and Michael Duda (NCAR) were very helpful for this study. We also acknowledge Jordan Powers and Tae-Kwon Wee (NCAR) for their comments and suggestions of our initial manuscript, which greatly improved the presentation of the results. This work is supported by NSF/OPP Grant 0230361.
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