This work was supported by NSF Grants ATM-0241037 and ATM-0637148 to the University of Oklahoma and ATM-0000592 to the University of Massachusetts. Stephen Frasier and his group in the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Massachusetts provided the mobile radars. Dan Dawson and Mike French drove and operated the mobile Doppler radar, respectively, in the chase vehicle on 26 May 2004. Matthew Kramar operated the UMass X-Pol on 30 April 2003 and Brendan Fennell drove the radar truck. Mark Laufersweiler (OU) assisted with data collection and display issues. Jeff Snyder assisted with making the WSR-88D data available for perusal using SOLO; Jana Houser made the mesonet data available.
Alexander, C. R., and J. Wurman, 2005: The 30 May 1998 Spencer, South Dakota, storm. Part I: The structural evolution and environment of the tornadoes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 72–97.
Bluestein, H. B., 2007: Advances in applications of the physics of fluids to severe weather systems. Rep. Prog. Phys., 70 , 1259–1323.
Bluestein, H. B., and C. R. Parks, 1983: A synoptic and photographic climatology of low-precipitation severe thunderstorms in the Southern Plains. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 2034–2046.
Bluestein, H. B., and A. L. Pazmany, 2000: Observations of tornadoes and other convective phenomena with a mobile, 3-mm wavelength, Doppler radar: The spring 1999 field experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 2939–2951.
Bluestein, H. B., and M. L. Weisman, 2000: The interaction of numerically simulated supercells initiated along lines. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 3128–3149.
Bluestein, H. B., M. M. French, R. L. Tanamachi, S. Frasier, K. Hardwick, F. Junyent, and A. L. Pazmany, 2007: Close-range observations of tornadoes in supercells made with a dual-polarization, X-band, mobile Doppler radar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 1522–1543.
Cohen, C., and E. W. McCaul Jr., 2006: The sensitivity of simulated convective storms to variations in prescribed single-moment microphysics parameters that describe particle distributions, sizes, and numbers. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 2547–2565.
Doswell III, C. A., 2001: Severe convective storms—An overview. Severe Convective Storms, Meteor Monogr., No. 50, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1–26.
Koch, S. E., and W. L. Clark, 1999: A nonclassical cold front observed during COPS-91: Frontal structure and the process of severe storm initiation. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 2862–2890.
Kyle, T. G., W. R. Sand, and D. J. Musil, 1976: Fitting measurements of thunderstorm updraft profiles to model profiles. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104 , 611–617.
Markowski, P. M., J. M. Straka, and E. N. Rasmussen, 2002: Direct surface thermodynamic observations within the rear-flank downdrafts of nontornadic and tornadic supercells. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 1692–1721.
McCaul Jr., W. M., D. E. Buechler, S. Hodanish, and S. J. Goodman, 2002: The Almena, Kansas, tornadic storm of 3 June 1999: A long-lived supercell with very little cloud-to-ground lightning. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 407–415.
McPherson, R. A., and Coauthors, 2007: Statewide monitoring of the mesoscale environment: A technical update on the Oklahoma Mesonet. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24 , 301–321.
Rasmussen, E. N., and J. M. Straka, 1998: Variations in supercell morphology. Part I: Observations of the role of upper-level storm-relative flow. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 2406–2421.
Richardson, Y., K. K. Droegemeier, and R. P. Davies-Jones, 2000: The influence of horizontal variations in vertical shear and low-level moisture on numerically simulated convective storms. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, Fl., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 599–602.
Weckwerth, T. M., and Coauthors, 2004: An overview of the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) and some preliminary highlights. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85 , 253–277.
Weisman, M. L., and J. B. Klemp, 1982: The dependence of numerically simulated convective storms on vertical wind shear and buoyancy. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110 , 504–520.
Weisman, M. L., and J. B. Klemp, 1984: The structure and classification of numerically simulated convective storms in directionally varying wind shears. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112 , 2479–2498.