This research is supported by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (Grant NA06OAR4310001). We thank Cathy Thiaw and Bert Katz for helping us to obtain the GDAS on sigma coordinates and for running the numerical experiments reported in this paper. We also thank Editor Dr. Thomas Hamill and two anonymous reviewers for thoughtful comments that lead to substantial clarifications. We also thank the Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies for providing computational resources required by this project.
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