The authors are grateful to Erich Roeckner, Jin-song von Storch, Christiane Jablonowski, and Rita Seiffert for helpful comments and discussions. We would also like to thank the two anonymous reviewers whose useful and constructive comments helped improve the original manuscript. All experiments in this study were performed on the NEC SX-6 supercomputer at the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ) in Hamburg. HW is recipient of a fellowship from the ZEIT Foundation “Ebelin and Gerd Bucerius” in Hamburg, Germany.
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