This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), under a contract with NASA; X. Jiang and D. Waliser were jointly supported by the Research and Technology Development program and Human Resources Development Fund at JPL, as well as the NASA Modeling, Analysis and Prediction program. We also thank K. Weickmann, G. Kiladis, S. Woolnough, A. Vintzileos, and another anonymous reviewer for their insightful comments, which led to considerable improvements of earlier versions of this manuscript.
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