The approach of imposing the LBC conditions in an iterative procedure has been suggested independently by M. Hortal while this work was carried out. The authors thank Aidan McDonald and Mariano Hortal for fruitful discussions.
Bénard, P., 2003: Stability of semi-implicit and iterative centered-implicit time discretizations for various equations systems used in NWP. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 2479–2491.
Boyd, J. P., 2005: Limited-area Fourier spectral models and data analysis schemes: Windows, Fourier extension, Davies relaxation, and all that. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 2030–2042.
Bubnová, R., , G. Hello, , P. Bénard, , and J-F. Geleyn, 1995: Integration of the fully elastic equations cast in the hydrostatic pressure terrain-following in the framework of the Arpege/Aladin NWP system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123 , 515–535.
Cullen, M. J. P., 2001: Alternative implementation of the semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit schemes in the ECMWF model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127 , 2787–2802.
Elvius, T., , and A. Sundström, 1973: Computationally efficient schemes and boundary conditions for a fine mesh barotropic model based on the shallow-water equations. Tellus, 25 , 132–156.
Haugen, J. E., , and B. Machenhauer, 1993: A spectral limited-area model formulation with time-dependent boundary conditions applied to shallow-water equations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 2618–2630.
McDonald, A., 2000: Boundary conditions for semi-Lagrangian schemes: Testing some alternatives in one-dimensional models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 4084–4096.
McDonald, A., 2003: Transparent boundary conditions for the shallow-water equations: Testing in a nested environment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 698–705.
McDonald, A., 2005: Transparent lateral boundary conditions for baroclinic waves: A study of two elementary systems of equations. Tellus, 57A , 171–182.
McDonald, A., 2006: Transparent lateral boundary conditions for baroclinic waves II: Introducing potential vorticity waves. Tellus, 58A , 210–220.
Oliger, J., , and A. Sundström, 1978: Theoretical and practical aspects of some initial boundary value problem in fluid dynamics. SIAM J. Appl. Math., 35 , 419–446.
Radnóti, G., 1995: Comments on “A spectral limited-area formulation with time-dependent boundary conditions for the shallow-water equations”. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123 , 3122–3123.
Sundström, A., , and T. Elvius, 1979: Computational problems related to limited area modelling. Numerical Methods Used in Atmospheric Models, GARP Publication Series, Vol. 2, No. 17, World Meteorological Organization, 379–416.
Termonia, P., 2003: Monitoring and improving the temporal interpolation of lateral-boundary coupling data for limited-area models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 2450–2463.
Termonia, P., 2004: Monitoring the coupling-update frequency of a limited-area model by means of a digital recursive filter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 2130–2141.
Termonia, P., , and F. Voitus, 2008: Externalizing the lateral-boundary conditions from the dynamical core in the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian models. Tellus, 62A , 632–648.
Warner, T. T., , R. A. Pearson, , and R. Treadon, 1997: A tutorial on lateral boundary conditions as a basic and potentially serious limitation to regional numerical weather prediction. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 2599–2617.