This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. The authors thank A. Wittenberg, S. Garner, T. Knutson, and G. Villarini for valuable discussions. The comments and suggestions from Suzana Camargo, Chris Landsea, and one anonymous reviewer helped improve the manuscript. Ming Zhao was supported in part by NSF Grant ATM-0612551 and in part under Award NA17RJ2612 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. The findings are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the U.S. Department of Commerce.
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