The design of the baseline experiment benefitted from discussions with Pierre Gauthier of Université du Québec, Montréal; Carla Cardinali of ECMWF; Stéphane Laroche of Environment Canada; and Florence Rabier of Météo-France. The authors thank Yannick Trémolet of ECMWF for his work in developing the adjoint of the GSI analysis scheme used in GEOS-5, and Judy St-James and Monique Tanguay of Environment Canada for their help in developing the GDPS and conducting experiments. We thank Ron Errico of GMAO for many hours of insightful discussions about the work. We thank Carla Cardinali and two anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions that improved the paper significantly. This work was supported by the NASA Modeling, Analysis and Prediction program (MAP/04-0000-0080) and by the Naval Research Laboratory and the Office of Naval Research, under Program Element 0602435N, Project Number BE-435-037.
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