This study was supported by a grant from the “Eco-Technopia 21 Project” by the Korean Ministry of Environment and the Brain Korea 21 Project. The authors are very grateful to Prof. Kyung-Eak Kim of the Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, for his constructive criticism and helpful discussions during the preparation of this manuscript. The authors thank Natalie Perlin of the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, for her assistance in the model coupling. The manuscript was further improved by the criticism from two reviewers: J. Lewis and an anonymous one.
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