The author thanks NCEP/EMC for help in running the models and in providing the computer resources to make this study possible. Tim Marchok and Morris Bender of NOAA/GFDL ran many of the GFDL cases and provided many helpful comments, and Kao-San Yeh and Xuejin Zhang for helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. Other fruitful discussions were held with Sharan Majumdar and Brian Etherton. Bob Kohler and Bill Barry provided computer support at HRD. The author also thanks the NOAA/Aircraft Operations Center (AOC) flight crews, AOC G-IV project manager Jack Parrish, and HRD personnel who participated in the flights, in addition to Air Force C-130 crews that also provided surveillance data over the years. Two anonymous reviewers improved the presentation of the material.
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