The authors thank Eyad Atallah, Jason Cordeira, and Antonio Speranza for useful discussions during the preparation of this study. Dave Shultz and three anonymous reviewers provided valuable feedback and guidance during the review process. We also appreciate the efforts of Kristen Corbosiero and Sergio Abarca who processed the WWLLN lighting presented here, and Mike Brennan who provided gridded QuikSCAT data. This study was motivated by the weekly academic year Friday afternoon map discussion led by two of the authors (Bosart and Galarneau) at the University at Albany/SUNY.
Aebischer, U., , and C. Schär, 1998: Low-level potential vorticity and cyclogenesis to the lee of the Alps. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 186–207.
Bister, M., , and K. A. Emanuel, 1997: The genesis of Hurricane Guillermo: TEXMEX analyses and a modeling study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 2662–2682.
Bleck, R., , and C. Mattocks, 1984: A preliminary analysis of the role of potential vorticity in Alpine lee cyclogenesis. Contrib. Atmos. Phys., 57 , 357–368.
Bosart, L. F., , and G. M. Lackmann, 1995: Postlandfall tropical cyclone reintensification in a weakly baroclinic environment: A case study of Hurricane David (September 1979). Mon. Wea. Rev., 123 , 3268–3291.
Buzzi, A., , and A. Speranza, 1983: Cyclogenesis in the lee of the Alps. Mesoscale Meteorology—Theories, Observations, and Models, D. Lilly and T. Gal-Chen, Eds., NATO ASI Series, Vol. 114, Reidel, 55–142.
Buzzi, A., , and A. Speranza, 1986: A theory of deep cyclogenesis in the lee of the Alps. Part II: Effects of finite topographic slope and height. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 2826–2837.
Buzzi, A., , and E. Tosi, 1989: Statistical behavior of transient eddies near mountains and implications for theories of lee cyclogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 1233–1249.
Côté, J., , S. Gravel, , A. Méthot, , A. Patoine, , M. Roch, , and A. Staniforth, 1998: The operation CMC-MRB Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 1373–1395.
Epifanio, C. C., , and D. R. Durran, 2002: Lee-vortex formation in free-slip stratified flow over ridges. Part II: Mechanisms of vorticity and PV production in nonlinear viscous wakes. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 1166–1181.
Hoskins, B., , M. McIntyre, , and A. Robertson, 1985: On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 111 , 877–946.
Hulme, A. L., , and J. E. Martin, 2009: Synoptic and frontal scale influences on tropical transition events in the Atlantic basin. Part I: A six-case survey. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137 , 3605–3625.
Jacobson, A. R., , R. Holzworth, , J. Harlin, , R. Dowden, , and E. Lay, 2006: Performance assessment of the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), using the Los Alamos Sferic Array (LASA) as ground truth. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 23 , 1082–1092.
Keyser, D., , and M. A. Shapiro, 1986: A review of the structure and dynamics of upper-level frontal zones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 452–499.
Mailhot, J., and Coauthors, 1998: Scientific description of RPN physics library. Version 3.6. Recherche en Prévision Numérique, 188 pp. [Available from Atmospheric Environment Service, 2121 TransCanada Highway, Montreal, QC H9P 1J3 Canada].
McGinley, J. A., , and J. S. Goerss, 1986: Effects of terrain height and blocking initialization on numerical simulations of Alpine lee cyclogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 1578–1590.
McTaggart-Cowan, R., , L. F. Bosart, , C. A. Davis, , E. H. Atallah, , J. R. Gyakum, , and K. A. Emanuel, 2006: Analysis of Hurricane Catarina (2004). Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 3029–3053.
McTaggart-Cowan, R., , T. J. Galarneau Jr., , L. F. Bosart, , and J. A. Milbrandt, 2010: Development and tropical transition of an Alpine lee cyclone. Part II: Orographic influence on the development pathway. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138 , 2308–2326.
Milbrandt, J. A., , and M. K. Yau, 2005: A multimoment bulk microphysics parameterization. Part II: A proposed three-moment closure and scheme description. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 3065–3081.
Montgomery, M. T., , and L. J. Shapiro, 1993: A three-dimensional balance theory for rapidly rotating vortices. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 3322–3335.
Montgomery, M. T., , N. V. Sang, , R. K. Smith, , and J. Persing, 2009: Do tropical cyclones intensify by WISHE? Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135 , 1715–1731.
Moscatello, A., , M. M. Milietta, , and R. Rotunno, 2008: Numerical analysis of a Mediterranean “hurricane” over southern Italy. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136 , 4373–4397.
O’Handley, C., , and L. F. Bosart, 1996: The impact of the Appalachian Mountains on cyclonic weather systems. Part I: A climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 1353–1373.
Pichler, H., , and R. Steinacker, 1987: On the synoptics and dynamics of orographically induced cyclones in the Mediterranean. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 36 , 108–117.
Pytharoulis, I., , G. C. Craig, , and S. P. Ballard, 2000: The hurricane-like Mediterranean cyclone of January 1995. Meteor. Appl., 7 , 261–279.
Radinović, D., 1965: On forecasting of cyclogenesis in the west Mediterranean and other areas bounded by mountain ranges by baroclinic model. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 14 , 279–299.
Rasmussen, E., , and C. Zick, 1987: A subsynoptic vortex over the Mediterranean Sea with some resemblance to polar lows. Tellus, 39 , 408–425.
Reale, O., , and R. Atlas, 2001: Tropical cyclone-like vortices in the extratropics: Observational evidence and synoptic analysis. Wea. Forecasting, 16 , 7–34.
Reinecke, P. A., , and D. R. Durran, 2008: Estimating topographic blocking using a Froude number when the static stability is nonuniform. J. Atmos. Sci., 65 , 1035–1048.
Renard, R. J., 1968: Forecasting the motion of tropical cyclones using numerically derived steering current and its bias. Mon. Wea. Rev., 96 , 453–469.
Rodger, C. J., , S. Werner, , J. B. Brundell, , E. H. Lay, , N. R. Thomson, , R. H. Holzworth, , and R. L. Dowden, 2006: Detection efficiency of the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN): Initial case study. Ann. Geophys., 24 , 3197–3214.
Rotach, M., and Coauthors, 2009: MAP D-PHASE: Real-time demonstration of weather forecast quality in the alpine region. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90 , 1321–1336.
Rotunno, R., , and K. A. Emanuel, 1987: An air–sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Part II: Evolutionary study using a nonhydrostatic axisymmetric numerical model. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 542–561.
Rotunno, R., , V. Grubišić, , and P. K. Smolarkiewicz, 1999: Vorticity and potential vorticity in mountain wakes. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 2796–2810.
Schär, C., , and R. B. Smith, 1993: Shallow-water flow past isolated topography. Part I: Vorticity production and wake formation. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 1373–1400.
Schär, C., , and D. R. Durran, 1997: Vortex formation and vortex shedding in continuously stratified flows past isolated topography. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 534–554.
Schumacher, P. N., , D. J. Knight, , and L. F. Bosart, 1996: Frontal interaction with the Appalachian Mountains. Part I: A climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 2453–2468.
Smith, R. B., , and D. F. Smith, 1995: Pseudoinviscid wake formation by mountains in shallow-water flow with a drifting vortex. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 436–454.
Smolarkiewicz, P. K., , and R. Rotunno, 1989: Low Froude number flow past three dimensional obstacles. Part I: Baroclinically generated lee vortices. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 1154–1164.
Soong, S. T., , and W. K. Tao, 1984: A numerical study of the vertical transport of momentum in a tropical rainband. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 1049–1061.
Speranza, A., , A. Buzzi, , and P. Malguzzi, 1985: A theory of deep cyclogenesis in the lee of the Alps. Part I: Modification of baroclinic instability by localized orography. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 1521–1535.
Tafferner, A., 1990: Lee cyclogenesis resulting from the combined outbreak of cold air and potential vorticity against the Alps. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 43 , 31–47.
Trigo, I. F., , T. D. Davies, , and G. R. Bigg, 1999: Objective climatology of cyclones in the Mediterranean region. J. Climate, 12 , 1685–1696.
Trigo, I. F., , G. R. Bigg, , and T. D. Davies, 2002: Climatology of cyclogenesis mechanisms in the Mediterranean. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 549–569.