We thank Richard Swinbank for useful discussions during the study. We acknowledge technical support from the National Centre for Atmospheric Science Computational Modelling Support team. We thank the Met Office for use of the MetUM and Richard Dumelow and Keir Bovis for providing technical help with the Met Office forecast suite. The study was supported by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Grant GFDex NE/C003365/1.
Bergot, T., 1999: Adaptive observations during FASTEX: A systematic survey of upstream flights. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 3271–3298.
Bergot, T., 2001: Influence of the assimilation scheme on the efficiency of adaptive observations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127 , 635–660.
Buizza, R., C. Cardinali, G. Kelly, and J. Thepaut, 2007: The value of targeted observations. II: The value of observations taken in singular-vectors-based target areas. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133 , 1817–1832.
Davies, T., M. J. P. Cullen, A. J. Malcolm, M. H. Mawson, and A. Staniforth, 2005: A new dynamical core for the Met Office’s global and regional modelling of the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 1759–1782.
Ingleby, N. B., 2001: The statistical structure of forecast errors and its representation in the Met. Office global 3-D variational data assimilation scheme. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127 , 209–231.
Irvine, E. A., S. L. Gray, J. Methven, I. A. Renfrew, K. Bovis, and R. Swinbank, 2009: The impact of targeted observations made during the Greenland Flow Distortion Experiment. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135 , 2012–2029.
Kelly, G., J. Thepaut, R. Buizza, and C. Cardinali, 2007: The value of targeted observations. I: Data denial experiments for the Atlantic and the Pacific. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133 , 1803–1815.
Leutbecher, M., J. Barkmeijer, T. N. Palmer, and A. J. Thorpe, 2002: Potential improvement to forecasts of two severe storms using targeted observations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 128 , 1641–1670.
Liu, H., and X. Zou, 2001: The impact of NORPEX targeted dropsondes on the analysis and 2–3 day forecasts of a landfalling Pacific winter storm using NCEP 3DVAR and 4DVAR systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 1987–2004.
Parrish, D. F., and J. C. Derber, 1992: The National Meteorological Center’s spectral statistical-interpolation analysis scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120 , 1747–1763.
Petersen, G. N., I. A. Renfrew, and G. W. K. Moore, 2009: An overview of barrier winds off southeastern Greenland during GFDex. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135 , 1950–1967.
Rawlins, F., S. P. Ballard, K. J. Bovis, A. M. Clayton, D. Li, G. W. Inverarity, A. C. Lorenc, and T. J. Payne, 2007: The Met Office global four-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133 , 347–362.
Szunyogh, I., Z. Toth, K. A. Emanuel, C. H. Bishop, C. Snyder, R. E. Morss, J. Woolen, and T. Marchok, 1999: Ensemble-based targeting experiments during FASTEX: The effect of dropsonde data from the Lear jet. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 3189–3217.