The authors thank Dr. Hong Li for providing the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data already interpolated onto the grid of the SPEEDY model, as well as Dr. Sajal Kar and an anonymous reviewer for their constructive criticism that helped enhance this work. PDW acknowledges funding through a University Research Fellowship from the Royal Society (Reference UF080256). The support of NASA Grants NNX07AM97G and NNX08AD40G, and DOE Grant DEFG0207ER64437 is also gratefully acknowledged.
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