The first author acknowledges the Swiss National Science Foundation Grant PA002-111427 and the Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, University of Oklahoma, for access to and support of the ARPS model. Several of the authors acknowledge NSF Grants ATM-06545784 (Chow), ATM-0524891 (Grubisić), ATM-0524891 (Jiang), ATM-0444205 (Schmidli), ATM-0521776 and ATM-0837870 (Whiteman); NSF MRI Grants CNS-0421498, CNS-0420873, and CNS-0420985 (Wyszogrodzki); and ONR Grants PE 0601153N (Doyle and Holt). EULAG’s computer time was supported in part by NSF sponsorship of the National Center for Academic Research, the University of Colorado, and a grant from the IBM Shared University Research (SUR) program. COAMPS(r) is a registered trademark of NRL. Computational resources for the COAMPSv4 simulations were supported in part by a grant of HPC time from the Department of Defense Major Shared Resource Centers, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.
Berg, L. K., and S. Zhong, 2005: Sensitivity of MM5-simulated boundary layer characteristics to turbulence parameterizations. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 1467–1483.
Blackadar, A. K., 1978: Modeling pollutant transfer during daytime convection. Preprints, Fourth Symp. on Atmospheric Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Quality, Reno, NV, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 443–447.
Brehm, M., 1986: Experimental and numerical investigations of the slope wind layer and its role in the warming of valleys. Ph.D. thesis, Meteorologisches Institut, Universität München, Wiss. Mitt. 54, 150 pp.
Chen, C., and W. R. Cotton, 1983: A one-dimensional simulation of the stratocumulus-capped mixed layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 25, 289–321.
Chow, F. K., A. P. Weigel, R. L. Street, M. W. Rotach, and M. Xue, 2006: High-resolution large-eddy simulations of flow in a steep Alpine valley. Part I: Methodology, verification, and sensitivity experiments. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 63–86.
Davies, T., M. J. P. Cullen, A. J. Malcolm, M. H. Mawson, A. Staniforth, A. A. White, and N. Wood, 2005: A new dynamical core for the Met Office’s global and regional modelling of the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 1759–1782.
De Wekker, S. F. J., D. G. Steyn, J. D. Fast, M. W. Rotach, and S. Zhong, 2005: The performance of RAMS in representing the convective boundary layer structure in a very steep valley. Environ. Fluid Mech., 5, 35–62.
Deardorff, J. W., 1980: Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a 3-dimensional model. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 18, 495–527.
Doms, G., and Coauthors, 2007: A description of the nonhydrostatic regional model LM: Part II: Physical parameterization. Tech. Rep., DWD, 146 pp.
Doyle, J. D., and Coauthors, 2000: An intercomparison of model-predicted wave breaking for the 11 January 1972 Boulder windstorm. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 901–914.
Dudhia, J., 1989: Numerical study of convection observed during the Winter Monsoon Experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 3077–3107.
Dudhia, J., 1993: A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 1493–1513.
Egger, J., 1990: Thermally forced flows: Theory. Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain, Meteor. Monogr., No. 23, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 43–58.
Grubisic, V., and Coauthors, 2008: The Terrain-induced Rotor Experiment: An overview of the field campaign and some highlights of special observations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 1513–1533.
Helfand, H. M., and J. C. Labraga, 1988: Design of a nonsingular level-2.5 second-order closure model for the prediction of atmospheric turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 113–132.
Hodur, R. M., 1997: The Naval Research Laboratory’s Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 1414–1430.
Holt, T. R., D. Niyogi, F. Chen, K. Manning, M. A. LeMone, and A. Quereshi, 2006: Effect of land–atmosphere interactions on the IHOP 24–25 May 2002 convection case. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 113–133.
Hong, S.-Y., Y. Noh, and J. Dudhia, 2006: A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2318–2341.
Hu, X.-M., J. W. Nielson-Gammon, and F. Zhang, 2010: Evaluation of three planetary boundary layer schemes in the WRF model. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49, 1831–1844.
Lock, A. P., A. R. Brown, M. R. Bush, G. M. Martin, and R. N. B. Smith, 2000: A new boundary layer mixing scheme. Part I: Scheme description and single-column model tests. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3187–3199.
McKee, T. B., and R. D. O’Neil, 1989: The role of valley geometry and energy budget in the formation of nocturnal valley winds. J. Appl. Meteor., 28, 445–456.
Mellor, G. L., and T. Yamada, 1982: Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 20, 851–875.
Mlawer, E. J., S. J. Taubman, P. D. Brown, M. J. Iacono, and S. A. Clough, 1997: Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 16 663–16 682.
Prusa, J. M., P. K. Smolarkiewicz, and A. A. Wyszogrodzki, 2008: EULAG, a computational model for multiscale flows. Comput. Fluids, 37, 1193–1207.
Rotach, M. W., and Coauthors, 2004: Turbulence structure and exchange processes in an alpine valley: The Riviera project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85, 1367–1385.
Rotach, M. W., M. Andretta, P. Calanca, A. P. Weigel, and A. Weiss, 2008: Boundary layer characteristics and turbulent exchange mechanisms in highly complex terrain. Acta Geophys., 56, 194–219.
Schmidli, J., and R. Rotunno, 2010: Mechanisms of along-valley winds and heat exchange over mountainous terrain. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 3033–3047.
Schumann, U., 1991: Subgrid length-scales for large-eddy simulation of stratified turbulence. Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 2, 269–290.
Sellers, P. J., and Coauthors, 1997: BOREAS in 1997: Experiment overview, scientific results, and future directions. J. Geophys. Res., 102 (D24), 28 731–28 769.
Skamarock, W. C., and J. B. Klemp, 2008: A time-split nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for weather research and forecasting applications. J. Comput. Phys., 227, 3465–3485.
Steinacker, R., 1984: Area-height distribution of a valley and its relation to the valley wind. Contrib. Atmos. Phys., 57, 64–71.
Steppeler, J., G. Doms, U. Schättler, H. Bitzer, A. Gassmann, U. Damrath, and G. Gregoric, 2003: Meso-gamma scale forecasts using the nonhydrostatic model LM. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 82, 75–96.
Sun, W.-Y., and C.-Z. Chang, 1986: Diffusion model for a convective layer. Part I: Numerical simulation of convective boundary layer. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 1445–1453.
Thompson, W. T., and S. D. Burk, 1991: An investigation of an Arctic front with a vertically nested mesoscale model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 233–261.
Thunis, P., and Coauthors, 2003: An inter-comparison exercise of mesoscale flow models applied to an ideal case simulation. Atmos. Environ., 37, 363–382.
Troen, I., and L. Mahrt, 1986: A simple model of the atmospheric boundary layer – sensitivity to surface evaporation. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 37, 129–148.
Weigel, A. P., F. K. Chow, M. W. Rotach, R. L. Street, and M. Xue, 2006: High-resolution large-eddy simulations of flow in a steep Alpine valley. Part II: Flow structure and heat budgets. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 87–107.
Weigel, A. P., F. K. Chow, and M. W. Rotach, 2007: On the nature of turbulent kinetic energy in a steep and narrow Alpine valley. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 123, 177–199, doi:10.1007/s10546-006-9142-9.
Whiteman, C. D., 1990: Observations of thermally developed wind systems in mountainous terrain. Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain, Meteor. Monogr., No. 23, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 5–42.
Xue, M., K. K. Droegemeier, and V. Wong, 2000: The Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS)—A multi-scale nonhydrostatic atmospheric simulation and prediction model. Part I: Model dynamics and verification. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 75, 161–193.
Xue, M., and Coauthors, 2001: The Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS)—A multi-scale nonhydrostatic atmospheric simulation and prediction model. Part II: Model physics and applications. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 76, 143–165.
Zängl, G., 2002: An improved method for computing horizontal diffusion in a sigma-coordinate model and its application to simulations over mountainous topography. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 1423–1432.
Zängl, G., A. Gohm, and F. Obleitner, 2008: The impact of the PBL scheme and the vertical distribution of model layers on simulations of Alpine foehn. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 99, 105–128.
Zhang, D., and R. A. Anthes, 1982: A high-resolution model of the planetary boundary layer—Sensitivity tests and comparison with SESAME-79 data. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 1594–1609.
Zhang, D., and W.-Z. Zheng, 2004: Diurnal cycles of surface winds and temperatures as simulated by five boundary layer parameterizations. J. Appl. Meteor., 43, 157–169.
Zhong, S. Y., and J. Fast, 2003: An evaluation of the MM5, RAMS, and Meso-Eta models at subkilometer resolution using VTMX field campaign data in the Salt Lake Valley. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 1301–1322.