YZ’s visit at Dalhousie University was supported by the China Scholarship Council and Nanjing University. YZ also acknowledge the support from the National Key Technology R&D Program of China under grant 2009BAC51B01. KRT and YL acknowledge support from the Global Ocean–Atmosphere Prediction and Predictability research network funded by the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences. KRT also acknowledges support from the Discovery Grant program of NSERC. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their insightful and constructive comments.
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