We wish to thank Prof. Y. Ni for providing the field observations used for the present study and Dr. Russ Schumacher and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. This work was supported by NSFC Grant 40775060 and NSF Grant ATM0758609.
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The 40 σ-coordinate levels are 1.0, 0.999, 0.9975, 0.995, 0.9925, 0.99, 0.985, 0.98, 0.97, 0.96, 0.95, 0.94, 0.93, 0.92, 0.91, 0.9, 0.88, 0.86, 0.84, 0.82, 0.8, 0.77, 0.74, 0.7, 0.65, 0.6, 0.55, 0.5, 0.45, 0.4, 0.35, 0.3, 0.25, 0.2, 0.15, 0.1, 0.075, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.