The authors are grateful to Prof. H. Uyeda, Dr. T. Shinoda, and Mr. M. Kato of the Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center at Nagoya University for their valuable suggestions and support. We thank Prof. T. Hayashi of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute at Kyoto University, Dr. F. Murata at Kochi University, and Dr. M. N. Islam of Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, for providing the data. The employed satellite images and satellite-based data were collected from the Naval Research Lab (NRL) tropical cyclone web page. We used the supercomputer at Nagoya University to perform the numerical simulation. The Grid Analysis and Display System software (GrADS) was used for analytical purposes and displaying figures. The authors acknowledge all anonymous reviewers of this paper for their thoughtful reviews.
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Zonal flow is roughly cross-band flow because of the band’s quasi-north–south orientation.