This research has benefited greatly from conversations with Paul Roundy and Adam Sobel. We thank George Kiladis for his thorough and constructive review. We obtained the rainfall data from the NASA Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (online at http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/datapool/TRMM/). We are grateful to David Vollaro and Karen Mohr for their assistance in obtaining and interpolating this data. This work was supported by NSF Grant ATM0839991.
Aiyyer, A. R., , and J. Molinari, 2003: Evolution of mixed Rossby–gravity waves in idealized MJO environments. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 2837–2855.
Aiyyer, A. R., , and J. Molinari, 2008: MJO and tropical cyclogenesis in the Gulf of Mexico and eastern Pacific: Case study and idealized numerical modeling. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 2691–2704.
Avila, L. A., , R. J. Pasch, , J. L. Beven, , J. L. Franklin, , M. B. Lawrence, , S. R. Stewart, , and J.-G. Jiing, 2003: Eastern North Pacific hurricane season of 2001. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 249–262.
Barrett, B. S., , and L. M. Leslie, 2009: Links between tropical cyclone activity and Madden–Julian oscillation phase in the North Atlantic and northeast Pacific basins. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 727–744.
Bessafi, M., , and M. C. Wheeler, 2006: Modulation of South Indian Ocean tropical cyclones by the Madden–Julian oscillation and convectively coupled equatorial waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 638–656.
Briegel, L. M., , and W. M. Frank, 1997: Large-scale influences on tropical cyclogenesis in the western North Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 1397–1413.
Camargo, S. J., , M. C. Wheeler, , and A. H. Sobel, 2009: Diagnosis of the MJO modulation of tropical cyclogenesis using an empirical index. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 3061–3074.
Chand, S. S., , and K. J. E. Walsh, 2010: The influence of the Madden–Julian oscillation on tropical cyclone activity in the Fiji region. J. Climate, 23, 868–886.
Chang, C.-P., , J. M. Haywood, , P. A. Harr, , and L. E. Carr, 1996: Northwestward-propagating wave patterns over the tropical western North Pacific during summer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2245–2266.
Davis, C. A., , and L. F. Bosart, 2001: Numerical simulations of the genesis of Hurricane Diana (1984). Part I: Control simulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 1859–1881.
Dickinson, M., , and J. Molinari, 2002: Mixed Rossby–gravity waves and western Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. Part I: Synoptic evolution. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 2183–2196.
Dunkerton, T. J., , M. T. Montgomery, , and Z. Wang, 2009: Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: Easterly waves. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5587–5646.
Fu, B., , T. Li, , M. S. Peng, , and F. Weng, 2007: Analysis of tropical cyclogenesis in the western North Pacific for 2000 and 2001. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 763–780.
Heta, Y., 1990: An analysis of tropical wind fields in relation to typhoon formation over the western Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 68, 65–77.
Hodges, K. I., , D. W. Chappell, , G. J. Robinson, , and G. Yang, 2000: An improved algorithm for generating global window brightness temperatures from multiple satellite infrared imagery. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17, 1296–1312.
Huffman, G. J., and Coauthors, 2007: The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales. J. Hydrometeor., 8, 38–55.
Kerns, B., , K. Greene, , and E. Zipser, 2008: Four years of tropical ERA-40 vorticity maxima tracks. Part I: Climatology and vertical vorticity structure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 4301–4319.
Kiladis, G. N., , K. H. Straub, , and P. T. Haertel, 2005: Zonal and vertical structure of the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2790–2809.
Kiladis, G. N., , C. D. Thorncroft, , and N. M. J. Hall, 2006: Three-dimensional structure and dynamics of African easterly waves. Part I: Observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2212–2230.
Kiladis, G. N., , M. C. Wheeler, , P. T. Haertel, , K. H. Straub, , and P. E. Roundy, 2009: Convectively coupled equatorial waves. Rev. Geophys., 47, RG2003, doi:10.1029/2008RG000266.
Knapp, K. R., , M. C. Kruk, , D. H. Levinson, , H. J. Diamond, , and C. J. Neumann, 2010: The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 363–376.
Kossin, J. P., , S. J. Camargo, , and M. Sitkowski, 2010: Climate modulation of North Atlantic hurricane tracks. J. Climate, 23, 3057–3076.
Lau, K.-H., , and N.-C. Lau, 1990: Observed structure and propagation characteristics of tropical summertime synoptic scale disturbances. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1888–1913.
Lee, C.-S., , K. K. W. Cheung, , J. S. N. Hui, , and R. L. Elsberry, 2008: Mesoscale features associated with tropical cyclone formations in the western North Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 2006–2022.
Leroy, A., , and M. C. Wheeler, 2008: Statistical prediction of weekly tropical cyclone activity in the Southern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 3637–3654.
Liebmann, B., , H. H. Hendon, , and J. D. Glick, 1994: The relationship between tropical cyclones of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 72, 401–412.
Liu, K. S., , and J. C. L. Chan, 2008: Interdecadal variability of western North Pacific tropical cyclone tracks. J. Climate, 21, 4464–4476.
Maloney, E. D., , and D. L. Hartmann, 2000: Modulation of eastern North Pacific hurricanes by the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 13, 1451–1460.
Maloney, E. D., , and D. L. Hartmann, 2001: The Madden–Julian oscillation, barotropic dynamics, and North Pacific tropical cyclone formation. Part I: Observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2545–2558.
Matthews, A. J., , and G. N. Kiladis, 1999: Interactions between ENSO, transient circulation, and tropical convection over the Pacific. J. Climate, 12, 3062–3086.
McTaggart-Cowan, R., , G. D. Deane, , L. F. Bosart, , C. A. Davis, , and T. J. Galarneau, 2008: Climatology of tropical cyclogenesis in the North Atlantic (1948–2004). Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 1284–1304.
Mo, K. C., 2000: The association between intraseasonal oscillations and tropical storms in the Atlantic basin. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 4097–4107.
Molinari, J., , K. Lombardo, , and D. Vollaro, 2007: Tropical cyclogenesis within an equatorial Rossby wave packet. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 1301–1317.
Roundy, P. E., , and C. J. Schreck, 2009: A combined wave-number–frequency and time-extended EOF approach for tracking the progress of modes of large-scale organized tropical convection. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135, 161–173.
Roundy, P. E., , C. J. Schreck, , and M. A. Janiga, 2009: Contributions of convectively coupled equatorial Rossby waves and Kelvin waves to the real-time multivariate MJO indices. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 469–478.
Sadler, J. C., 1976: A role of the tropical upper tropospheric trough in early season typhoon development. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104, 1266–1278.
Schreck, C. J., , and J. Molinari, 2011: Tropical cyclogenesis associated with Kelvin waves and the Madden–Julian oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 2723–2734.
Schreck, C. J., , J. Molinari, , and K. I. Mohr, 2011: Attributing tropical cyclogenesis to equatorial waves in the western North Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 195–209.
Shapiro, L. J., 1986: The three-dimensional structure of synoptic-scale disturbances over the tropical Atlantic. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 1876–1891.
Sobel, A. H., , and E. D. Maloney, 2000: Effect of ENSO and the MJO on western North Pacific tropical cyclones. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1739–1742.
Straub, K. H., , and G. N. Kiladis, 2002: Observations of a convectively coupled Kelvin wave in the eastern Pacific ITCZ. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 30–53.
Straub, K. H., , and G. N. Kiladis, 2003a: Extratropical forcing of convectively coupled Kelvin waves during austral winter. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 526–543.
Straub, K. H., , and G. N. Kiladis, 2003b: Interactions between the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation and higher-frequency tropical wave activity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 945–960.
Takayabu, Y. N., , and T. Nitta, 1993: 3-5 day-period disturbances coupled with convection over the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 71, 221–246.
Wheeler, M., , and G. N. Kiladis, 1999: Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber–frequency domain. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 374–399.
Wheeler, M., , and H. H. Hendon, 2004: An all-season real-time multivariate MJO index: Development of an index for monitoring and prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 1917–1932.
Wheeler, M., , G. N. Kiladis, , and P. J. Webster, 2000: Large-scale dynamical fields associated with convectively coupled equatorial waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 613–640.
Yang, G.-Y., , B. Hoskins, , and J. Slingo, 2003: Convectively coupled equatorial waves: A new methodology for identifying wave structures in observational data. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 1637–1654.