This study is supported by (i) NOAA’s THORPEX program and (ii) a CIRES visiting fellowship. Conversations with Rich Grumm (NOAA/NWS) and Prof. Russ Schumacher (Colorado State University), and feedback received during a scientific map discussion at the Physical Sciences Division in the NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory led by the lead author, contributed to this work. Dave Vollaro (University at Albany, SUNY) is thanked for help in processing the TRMM rainfall data. Dr. Klaus Wolter (CIRES/University of Colorado) is thanked for collecting and tabulating climatological rainfall information over Pakistan. Prof. Lance Bosart (University at Albany, SUNY) is thanked for providing an informal review on an earlier version of the manuscript. Three anonymous reviewers are thanked for their critical comments and suggestions.
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