The authors thank Paul Ciesielski, Brian McNoldy, Rick Taft, and Sue van den Heever for all their assistance relating to this research, as well as three anonymous reviewers and Editor David Schultz for their helpful comments. This work was supported by NASA Headquarters under NASA Contracts NNX07AD35G, NNX10AG81G, and by the National Science Foundation, Mesoscale Dynamic Meteorology and Physical and Dynamic Meteorology Programs, under Grants ATM-0639461 and AGS-0966758. Also, we would like to acknowledge the high-performance computing support provided by NCAR’s Computational and Information Systems Laboratory, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
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The horizontal resolution (4 km) is insufficient to resolve individual convective clouds, but permits gridscale convection without a convective parameterization. See section 3 for more discussion.