Work is supported (in parts) through the Cluster of Excellence “CliSAP,” University of Hamburg, funded through the German Science Foundation (DFG-EXC177), and through the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research. The authors thank S. Bakan, W. Koch, and J. Horstmann for valuable discussions and B. Gardeike who helped with the preparation of the figures for this paper. The authors thank colleagues who provided best track datasets from the Japan Meteorological Agency (http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/jma-eng/jma-center/rsmc-hp-pub-eg/besttrack.html), the China Meteorological Agency (http://www.typhoon.gov.cn), the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (http://www.usno.navy.mil/NOOC/nmfc-ph/RSS/jtwc/best_tracks/wpindex.html), and the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ibtracs/index.php?name=ibtracs-data). We appreciate being able to use the Blended Sea Winds provided by NOAA (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/rsad/seawinds.html), the Typhoon Reanalysis for the western Pacific (http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu/datadoc/typhoon.php), and T-PARC-2008, ITOP-2010 field campaign measurements (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data_sub/hurr.html). This work is a contribution to the “Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM” (Regional Climate Change), a joint research project of the Helmholtz Association of German research centres (HGF). We also thank the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.
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