The authors wish to thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, which helped improve the manuscript. This study has been supported in part by NSF Grant ATM-0754039. Qingqing Li has also been supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB421505) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 40921160381, 41005033, and 40905029. Additional support has been provided by the JAMSTEC, NASA, and NOAA through their sponsorships of the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) in the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) at the University of Hawaii.
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