Thanks to the German Weather Service (DWD) and the ECMWF for providing the data ERA-Interim and the CERA database in Hamburg. Thanks to Edilbert Kirk, Bernd Schalge, and Axel Gabriel for discussions and helpful comments and Brigitte Wecke for her support in the data processing. The authors thank three anonymous reviewers for the review of the article and their helpful comments improving the manuscript. Special thanks to Kerstin Haberkorn for her help. AS and PV were funded by the DFG (Grant PE-474/7-1). The IAP group is thankful for the one-week visit at the University of Hamburg funded by the Cluster of Excellence Integrated Climate System Analysis and Prediction (CliSAP).
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