This work is based on a part of the first author’s doctoral dissertation. The first author thanks Drs. M. Kimoto, M. Satoh, H. Nakamura, K. Iga, H. Hasumi, and A. Sumi at the University of Tokyo for their helpful comments and discussions. This work is supported by Precipitation Measuring Mission project of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The authors would like to express their gratitude to three anonymous reviewers for their very helpful comments. They also want to acknowledge the Japan Meteorological Agency, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and NOAA for providing valuable data. SSM/I data and QuikSCAT data were produced by Remote Sensing Systems, and are available online (http://www.remss.com).
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