This research was supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research to Naval Postgraduate School, under Awards N0001408WR20125, N0001409AF00002, and N0001410AF00002, and by Taiwan’s National Research Council through Grants NSC96-2111-M-002-002, NSC97-2628-M-002-023, 97R0066-69, and MOTC-CWB-96-2M-01 to the National Taiwan University. HCK and CHL wish to thank ONR for supporting visits to the Naval Postgraduate School and for participation in the TCS-08 field experiment. CPC wishes to thank NSC for supporting visits to the National Taiwan University. We thank the entire NRL P-3 team for collecting and providing the data used in this research.
Anagnostou, M. N., , E. N. Anagnostou, , and J. Vivekanandan, 2006: Correction for rain path specific and differential attenuation of X-band dual-polarization observations. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 44, 2470–2480.
Biggerstaff, M. I., , and S. A. Listemaa, 2000: An improved scheme for convective/stratiform echo classification using radar reflectivity. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 2129–2150.
Didlake, A. C., , and R. A. Houze, 2009: Convective-scale downdrafts in the principal rainband of Hurricane Katrina (2005). Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 3269–3293.
Dritschel, D. G., , and D. W. Waugh, 1992: Quantification of the inelastic interaction of unequal vortices in two-dimensional vortex dynamics. Phys. Fluids, 4A, 1737–1744.
Elsberry, R. L., , and P. A. Harr, 2008: Tropical Cyclone Structure (TCS08) field experiment: Science basis, observational platforms, and strategy. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 209–231.
Gamache, J. F., 1997: Evaluation of a fully-three dimensional variational Doppler analysis technique. Preprints, 28th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Austin, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 422–423.
Hack, J. J., , and W. H. Schubert, 1986: Nonlinear response of atmospheric vortices to heating by organized cumulus convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 1559–1573.
Hawkins, J. D., , M. Helveston, , T. F. Lee, , F. J. Turk, , K. Richardson, , C. Sampson, , J. Kent, , and R. Wade, 2006: Tropical cyclone multiple eyewall configurations. Preprints, 27th Conf. on Hurricane and Tropical Meteorology, Monterey, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 6B.1.[Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/27Hurricanes/techprogram/paper_108864.htm.]
Hildebrand, P. H., and Coauthors, 1996: The ELDORA/ASTRAIA airborne Doppler weather radar design and observations from TOGA COARE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 213–232.
Jorgensen, D. P., 1984: Mesoscale and convective- scale characteristics of mature hurricanes. Part I: General observations by research aircraft. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 1268–1286.
Kuo, H.-C., , W. H. Schubert, , C.-L. Tsai, , and Y.-F. Kuo, 2008: Vortex interactions and barotropic aspects of concentric eyewall formation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 5183–5198.
Kuo, H.-C., , C.-P. Chang, , Y.-T. Yang, , and H.-J. Jiang, 2009: Western North Pacific typhoons with concentric eyewalls. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 3758–3770.
Leise, J. A., 1982: A multidimensional scale-telescoped filter and data extension package. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL WPL-82, 19 pp. [Available from NOAA/ERL, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303.]
Matthaeus, W. H., , and D. Montgomery, 1980: Selective decay hypothesis at high mechanical and magnetic Reynolds numbers. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 357, 203–222.
Montgomery, M. T., , and R. J. Kallenbach, 1997: A theory for vortex Rossby-waves and its application to spiral bands and intensity changes in hurricane. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123, 435–465.
Rosenfeld, D., , E. Amitai, , and D. B. Wolff, 1995: Classification of rain regimes by the three-dimensional properties of reflectivity fields. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 198–211.
Rozoff, C. M., , W. H. Schubert, , B. D. McNoldy, , and J. P. Kossin, 2006: Rapid filamentation zones in intense tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 325–340.
Rozoff, C. M., , W. H. Schubert, , and J. Kossin, 2008: Some dynamical aspects of tropical cyclone concentric eyewalls. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 134, 583–593.
Steiner, M., , R. A. Houze Jr., , and S. E. Yuter, 1995: Climatological characterization of three-dimensional storm structure from operational radar and rain gauge data. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 1978–2007.
Wakimoto, R. M., , C.-H. Liu, , and H. Cai, 1998: The Garden City, Kansas, storm during VORTEX 95. Part I: Overview of the storm’s life cycle and mesocyclogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 372–392.
Zhu, T., , D.-L. Zhang, , and F. Weng, 2004: Numerical simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part I: Eyewall evolution and intensity changes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 225–241.