The efforts of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Field Project Support (FPS) and the T-REX staff are greatly appreciated. The primary sponsor of T-REX is the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). The Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) lidar observations were sponsored by funds from the Austrian Science Foundation (FWF) and internal funds of DLR. The authors are thankful to Georg Mayr from the University Innsbruck for support and useful discussions. We are also thankful to Kathrin Folger (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) for analysis of the surface station measurements. Furthermore, we gratefully acknowledge comments from two reviewers that helped to improve the presentation. We thank ECMWF for providing computing resources.
Armi, L., and G. J. Mayr, 2011: The descending stratified flow and internal hydraulic jump in the lee of the Sierras. J. Appl. Meteor., 50, 1995–2011.
Birner, T., A. Dörnbrack, and U. Schumann, 2002: How sharp is the tropopause at midlatitudes? Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (14), 1700–1703.
Cohn, S. A., V. Grubišić, and W. O. J. Brown, 2011: Wind profiler observations of mountain waves and rotors during T-REX. J. Appl. Meteor., 50, 826–843.
Darby, L. S., and G. S. Poulos, 2006: The evolution of lee-wave rotor activity in the lee of Pike's Peak under the influence of a cold frontal passage: Implications for aircraft safety. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2857–2876.
De Wekker, S. F. J., and S. D. Mayor, 2009: Observations of atmospheric structure and dynamics in the Owens Valley of California with a ground-based, eye-safe, scanning aerosol lidar. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 48, 1483–1499.
Doyle, J. D., and D. R. Durran, 2007: Rotor and subrotor dynamics in the lee of three-dimensional terrain. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 4202–4221.
Doyle, J. D., V. Grubišić, W. O. J. Brown, S. F. J. de Wekker, A. Dörnbrack, Q. Jiang, S. D. Mayor, and M. Weissmann, 2009: Observations and numerical simulations of subrotor vortices during T-REX. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 1229–1249.
Doyle, J. D., Q. Jiang, R. B. Smith, and V. Grubišić, 2011a: Three-dimensional characteristics of stratospheric mountain waves during T-REX. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 3–23.
Doyle, J. D., and Coauthors, 2011b: An intercomparison of T-REX mountain-wave simulations and implications for mesoscale predictability. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 2811–2831.
Drechsel, S., M. Chong, G. J. Mayr, M. Weissmann, R. Calhoun, and A. Dörnbrack, 2009: Three-dimensional wind retrieval: Application of MUSCAT to dual-Doppler lidar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 26, 635–646.
Glickman, T., Ed., 2000: Glossary of Meteorology. 2nd ed. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 855 pp.
Grubišić, V., and J. P. Kuettner, 2003: Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX). Preprints, 10th AMS Conf. on Mesoscale Processes, Portland, OR, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 11.3.
Hertenstein, R. F., and J. P. Kuettner, 2005: Rotor types associated with steep lee topography: Influence of the wind profile. Tellus, 57A, 117–135.
Hill, M., R. Calhoun, H. J. S. Fernando, A. Wieser, A. Dörnbrack, M. Weissmann, G. Mayr, and R. Newsom, 2010: Coplanar Doppler lidar retrieval of rotors from T-REX. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 713–729.
Holmboe, J., and H. Klieforth, 1957: Investigations of mountain lee waves and airflow over the Sierra Nevada. Final Rep., Contract AF19(604)-728, University of California AD 133606, Los Angeles, CA, 290 pp.
Jiang, Q., J. D. Doyle, S. Wang, and R. B. Smith, 2007: On boundary layer separation in the lee of mesoscale topography. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 401–420.
Jiang, Q., M. Liu, and J. D. Doyle, 2011: Influence of mesoscale dynamics and turbulence on fine dust transport in Owens Valley. J. Appl. Meteor., 50, 20–38.
Ludlam, F. H., and R. S. Scorer, 1957: Cloud Study: A Pictorial Guide. John Murray Ltd., 80 pp.
Mobbs, S. D., and Coauthors, 2005: Observations of downslope winds and rotors in the Falkland Islands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 329–351.
Neiman, P. J., R. M. Hardesty, M. A. Shapiro, and R. E. Cupp, 1988: Doppler lidar observations of a downslope windstorm. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 2265–2275.
Prusa, J. M., P. K. Smolarkiewicz, and A. A. Wyszogrodzki, 2008: EULAG, a computational model for multiscale flows. Comput. Fluids, 37, 1193–1207.
Ralph, F. M., P. J. Neiman, T. L. Keller, D. Levinson, and L. Fedor, 1997: Observations, simulations, and analysis of nonstationary trapped lee waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 1308–1333.
Sheridan, P. F., and S. B. Vosper, 2006: A flow regime diagram for forecasting lee waves, rotors and downslope winds. Meteor. Appl., 13, 179–195.
Sheridan, P. F., and S. B. Vosper, 2012: High-resolution simulations of lee waves and downslope winds over the Sierra Nevada during T-REX IOP 6. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 51, 1333–1352.
Smith, R. B., B. K. Woods, J. Jensen, W. A. Cooper, J. D. Doyle, Q. Jiang, and V. Grubišić, 2008: Mountain waves entering the stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 2543–2562.
Weissmann, M., A. Dörnbrack, and J. D. Doyle, 2009: Vorticity from line-of-sight lidar velocity scans. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 26, 2683–2690.
Whelan, R. F., 2000: Exploring the Monster. Mountain Lee Waves: The Aerial Elevator. Wind Canyon Books, 169 pp.
The Integrated Sounding System (ISS)-Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR) site was located at the center site in OwensValley, about 1.5 km southeast of the town of Independence, California.