This study was supported by NSF Grant AGS-1062202 and NOAA Climate Program Office (CPO) Earth System Science (ESS) Grants (Zhang, Gottschalck). Schreck received support for this research from NOAA’s Climate Data Record (CDR) Program through the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites (CICS-NC). We are also grateful to Hilawe Semunegus for processing the SSMIS precipitable water data. Real-time analysis and forecast data provided by ECMWF were tremendously helpful during the DYNAMO field campaign. The authors thank Matt Wheeler for dedicated service and very helpful discussions during the DYNAMO campaign. We would like to also thank John Knaff and one anonymous reviewer for careful review of the manuscript and extremely helpful suggestions.
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