The authors acknowledge Drs. T. Nasuno, P. E. Ciesielski, R. H. Johnson, and W. H. Schubert for valuable suggestions. The comments from three anonymous reviewers were invaluable to improve the manuscript. All of the participants and supporters of the PALAU2008 observations are acknowledged for their efforts to obtain and provide the dataset. GPS precipitable water data were kindly provided by Dr. M. Fujita. QuikSCAT and SSM/I datasets were provided by Remote Sensing Systems Co. (http://www.remss.com). Global-IR data were generated by NOAA and provided by NASA. MTSAT data on the split-window channels were provided by Kochi University. TRMM data were provided by NASA and JAXA. GSMaP data were processed and provided by JAXA.
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PALAU intensive observation in 2008.