We are grateful to Drs. Yvette Richardson, Jerry Harrington, Bill Frank, and Andrew Carleton whose constructive comments as members of the lead author's dissertation committee improved this work. We also wish to thank Drs. Robert Carver, Jim Marquis, and Jon Petters for their assistance, and Dr. Chuck Pavloski and Mr. Chad Bahrmann for valuable computing help. The constructive comments provided by three anonymous reviewers also greatly improved this manuscript. Calculations of CAPE, CIN, and bulk Richardson number were performed using code made available by Dr. Kerry Emanuel. Many of the plots have been created using the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS), developed by the Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies. ARPS was developed by the Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms at the University of Oklahoma. This work has been supported by National Science Foundation Grant ATM-0644533.
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CAPE and CIN were calculated for surface parcels, assumed pseudoadiabatic ascent, and included the effects of water vapor on buoyancy.
The trajectories were computed using a fourth-order Runge–Kutta technique. The time step of each trajectory was 60 s and model data dump intervals were 300 s. The trajectories presented as a representative sample of dozens computed.
Gust fronts were identified subjectively from the simultaneous presence of a temperature gradient and a wind shift.