We thank the DOW crews, which were supported by National Science Foundation Grant AGS-0724318. There were several SUNY Oswego undergraduate research assistants who helped collect the data, including Evan Duffey, Joseph Finlon, Brittany Gibbons, Jake Mulholland, and Lacey Pitman. We also thank all reviewers of this manuscript for providing insight on improving its science and presentation. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant AGS-1042826.
Ahasic, E. T., , J. W. Frame, , and T. R. Cermak, 2012: Classification of precipitation types in lake-effect snow events using dual-polarimetric Doppler radar observations. Preprints, 16th Symp. on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, New Orleans, LA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P6.4. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/92Annual/webprogram/Paper199189.html.]
Ballentine, R. J., , and D. Zaff, 2007: Improving the understanding and prediction of lake-effect snowstorms in the eastern Great Lakes region. Final Rep. to the COMET Outreach Program Award S06-58395, 41 pp.
Ballentine, R. J., , A. J. Stamm, , E. E. Chermack, , G. P. Byrd, , and D. Schleede, 1998: Mesoscale model simulation of the 4–5 January 1995 lake-effect snowstorm. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 893–920.
Cermak, T. R., , J. W. Frame, , and E. T. Ahasic, 2012: Dual-polarization observations of vortices and cellular convection within lake-effect snow bands. Preprints, 16th Symp. on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, New Orleans, LA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P6.6. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/92Annual/webprogram/Paper199211.html.]
Grim, J. A., , N. F. Laird, , and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2004: Mesoscale vortices embedded within a lake-effect shoreline band. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 2269–2274.
Inoue, H. Y., and Coauthors, 2011: Finescale Doppler radar observation of a tornado and low-level misocyclones within a winter storm in the Japan Sea coastal region. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 351–369.
Kristovich, D. A. R., , and R. A. Steve III, 1995: A satellite study of cloud-band frequencies over the Great Lakes. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 2083–2090.
Kristovich, D. A. R., and Coauthors, 2000: The lake-induced convection experiment and the snow band dynamics project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 519–542.
Laird, N. F., , J. E. Walsh, , and D. A. R. Kristovich, 2003: Model simulations examining the relationship of lake-effect morphology to lake shape, wind direction, and wind speed. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 2102–2111.
Lee, B. D., , and R. B. Wilhelmson, 1997: The numerical simulation of non-supercell tornadogenesis. Part I: Initiation and evolution of pretornadic misocyclone circulations along a dry outflow boundary. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 32–60.
Markowski, P., , and Y. Richardson, 2010: Mesoscale Meteorology in the Midlatitudes. Wiley-Blackwell, 407 pp.
Niziol, T. A., , W. R. Snyder, , and J. S. Waldstreicher, 1995: Winter weather forecasting throughout the eastern United States. Part IV: Lake effect snow. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 61–77.
Oye, R., , C. Mueller, , and S. Smith, 1995: Software for radar translation, visualization, editing, and interpolation. Preprints, 27th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Vail, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 359–363.
Passarelli, R. E., Jr., , and R. R. Braham Jr., 1981: The role of the winter land breeze in the formation of Great Lake snow storms. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 62, 482–491.
Pease, S. R., , W. A. Lyons, , C. S. Keen, , and M. Hjelmfelt, 1988: Mesoscale spiral vortex embedded within a Lake Michigan snow squall band: High resolution satellite observations and numerical model simulations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 1374–1380.
Phillips, B. B., 1973: Precipitation characteristics of a sheared, moderate intensity, supercell-type Colorado thunderstorm. J. Appl. Meteor., 12, 1354–1363.
Skamarock, W. C., and Coauthors, 2008: A description of the advanced research WRF version 3. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-4751STR, 88 pp.
Stumpf, G. J., , A. Witt, , E. D. Mitchell, , P. L. Spencer, , J. T. Johnson, , M. D. Eilts, , K. W. Thomas, , and D. W. Burgess, 1998: The National Severe Storms Laboratory mesocyclone detection algorithm for the WSR-88D. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 304–326.
Wood, V. T., , and R. A. Brown, 1992: Effects of radar proximity on single-Doppler velocity signatures of axisymmetric rotation and divergence. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 2798–2807.
Wood, V. T., , and R. A. Brown, 1997: Effects of radar sampling on single-Doppler velocity signatures of misocyclones and tornadoes. Wea. Forecasting, 12, 928–938.
Wood, V. T., , and R. A. Brown, 2000: Oscillations in mesocyclone signatures with range owing to azimuthal radar sampling. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17, 90–95.
Wurman, J., 2001: The DOW mobile multiple-Doppler network. Preprints, 30th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Munich, Germany, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95–97.
Wurman, J., , J. Straka, , E. Rasmussen, , M. Randall, , and A. Zahrai, 1997: Design and deployment of a portable, pencil-beam, pulsed, 3-cm Doppler radar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14, 1502–1512.