Luo acknowledges partial financial support from the Research Council of Norway and industrial partners through the project “Transient well flow modelling and modern estimation techniques for accurate production allocation.”
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The formula works for additive model error, as assumed in the present study. Nonadditive model error can be accounted for in a very similar way by inserting random noise simulated from the distribution of the model error, if known, as discussed by Evensen (2003).
Inflation was originally introduced in the form of a forgetting factor in the SEIK filter, which is the inverse of the inflation factor, in the context of the SEIK filter.