This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for Multi-Scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) led by David Randall at the Colorado State University under Cooperative Agreement ATM-0425247. The benchmark LES was performed using the IBM BlueGene/L “New York Blue” supercomputer at the New York Center for Computational Sciences, which is a joint venture of Stony Brook University and Brookhaven National Laboratory. I would like to thank Marat Khairoutdinov (Stony Brook University) and Steve Krueger (University of Utah) for generating the benchmark simulation data, and Akio Arakawa (UCLA), David Randall (CSU), and Peggy LeMone and Peter Sullivan (NCAR) for lengthy discussions.
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The numerical code SAM (the CSU's System for Atmospheric Model) that generates the Giga-LES uses a centered-finite differencing scheme for momentum equations, and hence tends to generate grid-scale noises. Thus, before analysis, we first perform 4 × 4 gridpoint averaging on the Giga-LES field to smooth out small-scale numerical noises. This presmoothing does affect the SGS updraft–downdraft mean properties, though not by a significant amount. Also, SAM adopts a staggered grid for various variables. For simplicity, we average all variables onto the w grid points first before performing the following analysis.