The authors thank Drs. Tammy Weckwerth and Scott Ellis, and Mr. John Tuttle for their helpful comments on the manuscript. The discussions with Dr. Michael Bell were instrumental. Comments from three anonymous reviewers greatly improved this manuscript. The second author is grateful for the support by the Graduate Student Visitor Program of the NCAR Advanced Study Program and the Earth Observing Laboratory during this research.
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Conic sections correspond to the curves which can be created by the intersection of a plane with a right circular cone (Taylor 1959, p. 403).
For ellipse and hyperbola only. The center for parabola is not defined.
By definition, both rVd and Vd displays would shift to the same new origin when a constant background wind presents. The new origin is the point where the wind vanishes by superimposing the background wind and the specified linear wind field.
It is understood that radar location is a singularity in Vd and the radar data at close range are highly likely contaminated by ground clutter. However, since rVd is a scalar, rVd at the radar can be obtained by 2D filling/interpolating from nearby valid rVd.
The PPI data will need to be interpolated into CAPPI for interpretation of wind fields above the surface layer.