This research was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant 2010CB428403), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 91125016 and 41075062), and the Special Funds for Public Welfare of China (Grant GYHY201306045). The authors gratefully acknowledge the Department of Statistics of the University of Washington for making the ensemble BMA software available online, the TIGGE–ECMWF portal for providing the dataset of ECMWF EPS, NCEP EPS, UKMO EPS, CMA EPS in TIGGE, and CMA for providing precipitation observations. We thank the editor, Josh Hacker, and the two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments and suggestions, which helped to improve the paper.
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