We extend special thanks to Dr. Kunihiko Kodera and Dr. Koji Yamazaki for their very insightful discussions. Graduate students at Mie University offered us fruitful advice. Suggestions by the reviewers, in particular those offered by Dr. Sumant Nigam, helped us to improve the paper. This study was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) through a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Grant 22106003) and by the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program Arctic Climate Change Research Project. The work of M. Ogi was supported by the Canada Excellence Research Chairs (CERC) Program and the Canada Research Chairs (CRC) Program. The Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) and the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) were used to draw the figures.
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