We extend special thanks to Dr. Kunihiko Kodera and Dr. Koji Yamazaki for their very insightful discussions. Graduate students at Mie University offered us fruitful advice. Suggestions by the reviewers, in particular those offered by Dr. Sumant Nigam, helped us to improve the paper. This study was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) through a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Grant 22106003) and by the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program Arctic Climate Change Research Project. The work of M. Ogi was supported by the Canada Excellence Research Chairs (CERC) Program and the Canada Research Chairs (CRC) Program. The Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) and the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) were used to draw the figures.
Barnston, A. G., , and R. E. Livezey, 1987: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1083–1126, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<1083:CSAPOL>2.0.CO;2.
Gong, D.-Y., , S.-W. Wang, , and J.-H. Zhu, 2001: East Asian Winter Monsoon and Arctic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2073–2076, doi:10.1029/2000GL012311.
He, S., , and H. Wang, 2013: Impact of the November/December Arctic Oscillation on the following January temperature in East Asia. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 12 981–12 998, doi:10.1002/2013JD020525.
Jeong, J.-H., , and C.-H. Ho, 2005: Changes in occurrence of cold surges over east Asia in association with Arctic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14704, doi:10.1029/2005GL023024.
Kalnay, E., and et al. , 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437–471, doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2.
Linkin, M. E., , and S. Nigam, 2008: The North Pacific Oscillation–West Pacific teleconnection pattern: Mature-phase structure and winter impacts. J. Climate, 21, 1979–1997, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI2048.1.
Nitta, T., 1987: Convective activities in the tropical western Pacific and their impact on the Northern Hemisphere summer circulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 65, 373–390.
Ogi, M., , K. Yamazaki, , and Y. Tachibana, 2004: The summertime annular mode in the Northern Hemisphere and its linkage to the winter mode. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D20114, doi:10.1029/2004JD004514.
Otomi, Y., , Y. Tachibana, , and T. Nakamura, 2013: A possible cause of the AO polarity reversal from winter to summer in 2010 and its relation to hemispheric extreme summer weather. Climate Dyn., 40, 1939–1947, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1386-0.
Park, T.-W., , J.-H. Jeong, , C.-H. Ho, , and S.-J. Kim, 2008: Characteristics of atmospheric circulation associated with cold surge occurrences in East Asia: A case study during 2005/06 winter. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 25, 791–805, doi:10.1007/s00376-008-0791-0.
Park, T.-W., , C.-H. Ho, , and S. Yang, 2011: Relationship between the Arctic Oscillation and cold surges over East Asia. J. Climate, 24, 68–83, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3529.1.
Reynolds, R. W., , N. A. Rayner, , T. M. Smith, , D. C. Stokes, , and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15, 1609–1625, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1609:AIISAS>2.0.CO;2.
Tachibana, Y., , T. Nakamura, , H. Komiya, , and M. Takahashi, 2010: Abrupt evolution of the summer Northern Hemisphere annular mode and its association with blocking. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D12125, doi:10.1029/2009JD012894.
Takaya, K., , and H. Nakamura, 2013: Interannual variability of the East Asian winter monsoon and related modulations of the planetary waves. J. Climate, 26, 9445–9461, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00842.1.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1297–1300, doi:10.1029/98GL00950.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13, 1000–1016, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<1000:AMITEC>2.0.CO;2.
Wakabayashi, S., , and R. Kawamura, 2004: Extraction of major teleconnection patterns possibly associated with the anomalous summer climate in Japan. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82, 1577–1588, doi:10.2151/jmsj.82.1577.
Wallace, J. M., , and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 784–812, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0784:TITGHF>2.0.CO;2.
Wang, L., , and W. Chen, 2014a: The East Asian winter monsoon: Re-amplification in the mid-2000s. Chin. Sci. Bull., 59, 430–436, doi:10.1007/s11434-013-0029-0.
Wang, L., , and W. Chen, 2014b: An intensity index for the East Asian winter monsoon. J. Climate, 27, 2361–2374, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00086.1.
Zhang, Z., , D. Gong, , M. Hu, , D. Guo, , X. He, , and Y. Lei, 2009: Anomalous winter temperature and precipitation events in southern China. J. Geogr. Sci., 19, 471–488, doi:10.1007/s11442-009-0471-8.