The authors thank Mark Bourassa and Vasubandhu Misra of the Florida State University for their feedback on the thesis on which this work was based. Additional thanks are owed to Bob Dattore for his efforts in providing data from a number of field experiments. This paper has also benefited from helpful discussions with Jack Beven and Chris Davis that have greatly aided the analysis process. The authors would also like to thank Patrick Duran, Jon Zawislak, and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful insights during the preparation of this manuscript. Data support for the PREDICT and GRIP field experiments is provided by NCAR/EOL under sponsorship of the National Science Foundation. This work was funded through the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field experiment (Grant NNX09AC43G).
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A tropical convective system is defined here as the collection of convective elements that make up the meso-
The consensus pouch positions are produced in real time by M. Boothe using the method described in Dunkerton et al. (2009) with a number of operational forecast model analyses. These pouch positions are available online at http://www.met.nps.edu mtmontgo/storms2010.html.
PGI denotes PREDICT–GRIP–IFEX, the three experiments that took place during 2010.
Specifically the response to warming that produces a drop (rise) in geopotential heights on an isobaric surface below (above) the source thereby inducing convergence below (divergence above) in order to remove the geopotential anomaly.
While the vorticity tendency equation was successfully expressed in line integral form using Green’s theorem, errors arose when kinematically calculating vertical velocity despite using the O’Brien (1970) corrections. It would appear that errors in divergence, caused by the high sensitivity of the divergence calculations to the errors introduced by the time–space conversion (see section 2e), were magnified by the vertical velocity calculations such that any useful signal was overwhelmed.