We gratefully acknowledge support from the U.S. Office of Naval Research through Grants N0014-94-1-0629 and N0014-88-J-1028 to the National Water Research Institute and N0014-89-1785 to the University of Washington. Support for the use of the SWATH ship was provided by the Office of Naval Research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Coastal Engineering Research Center of the U.S. Army, Environment Canada, and the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans. We thank Capt. S. Bodman and the crew of the Frederick G. Creed, along with fellow scientists C. Flagg, K. Howard, and E. Terray for their many contributions to the work.
Anctil, F., M. A. Donelan, W. M. Drennan, and H. C. Graber, 1994: Eddy correlation measurements of air–sea fluxes from a Discus buoy. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,11, 1144–1150.
Ataktürk, S. S., and K. B. Katsaros, 1989: The K-Gill: A twin propeller–vane anemometer for measurements of atmospheric turbulence. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,6, 509–515.
Bradley, E. F., P. A. Copping, and J. S. Geoffrey, 1991: Measurements of sensible and latent heat flux in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 3375–3389.
Dobson, F. W., S. D. Smith, and R. J. Anderson, 1994: Measuring the relationship between wind stress and sea state in the open ocean in the presence of swell. Atmos.–Ocean,32, 237–256.
Donelan, M. A., 1987: The effect of swell on the growth of wind waves. Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig.,8, 18–23.
——, 1990: Air–sea interaction. The Sea, B. LéMehauté and D. Hanes, Eds., Vol. 9A, Wiley, 239–292.
——, 1997: Air-water exchange processes. Physical Limnology, J. Imberger, Ed., Coastal Estuar. Studies, Amer. Geophys. Union, in press.
——, F. W. Dobson, S. D. Smith, and R. J. Anderson, 1993: On the dependence of sea surface roughness on wave development. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,23, 2143–2149.
Drennan, W. M., M. A. Donelan, N. Madsen, K. B. Katsaros, E. A. Terray, and C. N. Flagg, 1994: Directional wave spectra from a Swath ship at sea. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,11, 1109–1116.
Dupuis, H., A. Weill, K. B. Katsaros, and P. K. Taylor, 1995: Turbulent heat fluxes by profile and inertial dissipation methods: Analysis of the atmospheric surface layer from shipboard measurements during the SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE experiments. Ann. Geophys.,13, 1065–1074.
Edson, J. B., C. W. Fairall, P. G. Mestayer, and S. E. Larsen, 1991: A study of the inertial-dissipation method for computing air–sea fluxes. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 10689–10711.
Fujitani, T., 1985: Method of turbulent flux measurement on a ship by using a stable platform system. Pap. Meteor. Geophys.,36, 157–170.
——, 1992: Turbulent transport mechanism in the surface layer over the tropical ocean. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,70, 795–811.
Hicks, B. B., 1972: Propeller anemometers as sensors of atmospheric turbulence. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,3, 214–228.
Kats, A. V., and I. S. Spevak, 1980: Reconstruction of the sea-wave spectra from measurements of moving sensors. Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys.,16, 194–200.
Katsaros, K. B., M. A. Donelan, and W. M. Drennan, 1993: Flux measurements from a Swath ship in SWADE. J. Mar. Syst.,4, 117–132.
Large, W. G., and S. Pond, 1981: Open ocean momentum flux measurements in moderate to strong winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,11, 324–336.
MacCready, P. B., and H. R. Jex, 1964: Response characteristics and meteorological utilization of propeller and vane wind sensors. J. Appl. Meteor.,3, 182–193.
Mitsuta, Y., and T. Fujitani, 1974: Direct measurement of turbulent fluxes on a cruising ship. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,6, 203–217.
Miyake, M., M. A. Donelan, and Y. Mitsuta, 1970: Airborne measurements of turbulent fluxes. J. Geophys. Res.,75, 4506–4518.
Nghiem, S. V., F. K. Li, S. H. Lou, G. Neumann, R. E. McIntosh, S. C. Carson, J. C. Carswell, E. J. Walsh, M. A. Donelan, and W. M. Drennan, 1995: Observations on ocean radar backscatter Ku and C bands in the presence of large waves during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.,33, 708–721.
Pierson, W. J., Jr, 1983: The measurement of synoptic scale wind over the ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,88, 1683–1708.
Smith, S. D., 1980: Wind stress and heat flux over the ocean in gale force winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,10, 709–726.
——, R. J. Anderson, W. A. Oost, C. Kraan, N. Maat, J. deCosmo, K. B. Katsaros, K. L. Davidson, K. Bumke, L. Hasse, and H. M. Chadwick, 1992: Sea surface wind stress and drag coefficients: The HEXOS results. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,60, 109–142.