Many thanks to Bert Semtner and Bob Chervin who made their model results readily available and to Tony Craig and Robin Tokmakian who helped in extracting and interpreting the data. This study benefited from discussions with Kathie Kelly, Mike McCartney, John Marshall, John Toole, and Terry Joyce. Comments from the anonymous reviewers, Greg Holloway, and Stefan Llewellyn Smith have helped to improve the manuscript. This work was supported by National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract NAGW-1666 and by NOAA Award NA47GP0188 to the Lamont/Scripps Consortium for Climate Research.
Bryden, H. L., and R. A. Heath, 1985: Energetic eddies at the northern edge of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the southwest Pacific. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 14, Pergamon, 65–87.
FRAM Group, 1991: An eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union,72, 169–175.
Gill, A. E., 1968: A linear model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Fluid Mech.,32, 465–488.
Gille, S. T., 1994: Mean sea surface height of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current from GEOSAT data: Method and application. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 18255–18273.
——, 1995: Dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current: Evidence for topographic effects from altimeter data and numerical model output. Ph.D. thesis, MIT/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program, 216 pp. [Available from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543.].
——, and K. A. Kelly, 1996: Scales of spatial and temporal variability in the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 8759–8773.
Houry, S., E. Dombrowsky, P. DeMey, and J.-F. Minster, 1987: Brunt–Väisälä frequency and Rossby radii in the South Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceangr.,17, 1619–1626.
Ivchenko, V. O., K. J. Richards, and D. P. Stevens, 1996: The dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,26, 753–774.
Jayne, S. R., and R. Tokmakian, 1997: On the forcing and sampling of ocean general circulation models: Impact of high-frequency motions. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 1173–1179.
Johnson, G. C., and H. L. Bryden, 1989: On the size of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Deep-Sea Res.,36, 39–53.
——, R. H. Stewart, C. K. Shum, and B. D. Tapley, 1992: Distribution of Reynolds stress carried by mesoscale variability in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Geophys. Res. Lett.,19, 1201–1204.
Killworth, P. D., and M. M. Nanneh, 1994: Isopycnal momentum budget of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 1201–1223.
——, D. Stainforth, D. J. Webb, and S. M. Paterson, 1991: The development of a free-surface Bryan–Cox–Semtner ocean model. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,21, 1331–1348.
Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological Atlas of the World Oceans. NOAA Prof. Paper No. 13, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 173 pp plus microfiche.
Marshall, J., D. Olbers, H. Ross, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, 1993: Potential vorticity constraints on the dynamics and hydrography of the Southern Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,23, 465–487.
McWilliams, J. C., W. R. Holland, and J. H. S. Chow, 1978: A description of numerical Antarctic Circumpolar Currents. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans,2, 213–291.
Morrow, R., J. Church, R. Coleman, D. Chelton, and N. White, 1992: Eddy momentum flux and its contribution to the Southern Ocean momentum balance. Nature,357, 482–484.
Munk, W. H., and E. Palmén, 1951: Note on the dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Tellus,3, 53–55.
Orsi, A. H., T. Whitworth III, and W. D. Nowlin Jr., 1995: On the meridional extent and fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Deep-Sea Res. I,42, 641–673.
Pacanowski, R. C., and S. G. H. Philander, 1981: Parameterization of vertical mixing in numerical models of tropical oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,11, 1443–1451.
Semtner, A. J., 1986: Finite-difference formulation of a world ocean model. Proc of the NATO Advanced Physical Oceanographic Numerical Modelling, J. J. O’Brien, Ed., Reidel, 187–202.
——, and R. M. Chervin, 1992: Ocean general circulation from a global eddy-resolving model. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 5493–5550.
Stammer, D., R. Tokmakian, A. Semtner, and C. Wunsch, 1996: How well does a ¼° global circulation model circulation model simulate large-scale oceanic observations? J. Geophys. Res.,101, 25 779–25 811.
Stevens, D. P., and V. O. Ivchenko, 1997: The zonal momentum balance in a realistic eddy resolving general circulation model of the Southern Ocean. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,123, 929–951.
Treguier, A. M., and J. C. McWilliams, 1990: Topographic influences on wind-driven stratified flow in a β-plane channel: An idealized model for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,20, 321–343.
Trenberth, K. E., J. G. Olson, and W. G. Large, 1989: A global ocean wind stress climatology based on ECMWF analyses. NCAR Tech. Rep. NCAR/TN-338+STR, 93 pp. [Available from National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].
Wang, L., and R. X. Huang, 1995: A linear homogenous model of wind-driven circulation in a β-plane channel. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 587–603.
Wilkin, J. L., and R. A. Morrow, 1994: Eddy kinetic energy and momentum flux in the Southern Ocean: Comparison of a global eddy-resolving model with altimeter, drifter, and current-meter data. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 7903–7916.
Wolff, J.-O., E. Maier-Reimer, and D. J. Olbers, 1991: Wind-driven flow over topography in a zonal β-plane channel: A quasi-geostrophic model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,21, 236–264.