We are grateful to Tony Lee for the use of his dataset and his kind help. Glen Gawarkiewicz, Amy Bower, and an anonymous reviewer are thanked for their valuable comments on this manuscript. Support from the Office of Naval Research (Contract N00014-91-J-1425 for MSL and LJP, Contract N00014- 93-1-1369 for AMR and Contract N00014-93-10691 for PDM) is gratefully acknowledged. AMR also acknowledges the support from the National Science Foundation (OCE-9503014).
Behringer, R. P., S. D. Meyers, and H. L. Swinney, 1991: Chaos and mixing in a geostrophic flow. Phys. Fluids A,3, 1243–1249.
Bower, A. S., 1991: A simple kinematic mechanism for mixing fluid parcels across a meandering jet. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,21, 173–180.
——, and T. Rossby, 1989: Evidence of cross-frontal exchange processes in the Gulf Stream based on isopycnal RAFOS float data. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,19, 1177–1190.
——, and M. S. Lozier, 1994: A closer look at particle exchange across the Gulf Stream. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 1399–1418.
——, T. Rossby, and R. O’Gara, 1986: RAFOS Float Pilot Studies in the Gulf Stream. University of Rhode Island Tech. Rep. 86-7, 110 pp. [Available from Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882.].
Cornillon, P., T. Lee, and G. Fall, 1994: On the probability that a Gulf Stream meander crest detaches to form a warm core ring. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 159–171.
del-Castillo-Negrete, D., and P. J. Morrison, 1993: Chaotic transport by Rossby waves in shear flow. Phys. Fluids A,5, 948–965.
Duan, J., and S. Wiggins, 1996: Fluid exchange across a meandering jet with quasiperiodic variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,26, 1176–1188.
Dutkiewicz, S., A. Griffa, and D. B. Olson, 1993: Particle diffusion in a meandering jet. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 16 487–16 500.
Flierl, G. R., P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, and N. J. Zabusky, 1987: Nonlinear waves and coherent structures in barotropic β-plane jets. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,17, 1408–1438.
Gangopadhyay, A., 1990: Wind forcing of the Gulf Stream: A space–time analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Rhode Island, 190 pp. [Available from Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882.].
Hogg, N. G., R. S. Pickart, R. M. Hendry, and W. J. Smethie Jr., 1986: The northern recirculation gyre of the Gulf Stream. Deep- Sea Res.,33, 1139–1165.
Lee, T., 1994: Variability of the Gulf Stream path observed from satellite infrared images. Ph.D. Dissertation, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, 188 pp. [Available from Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882.].
——, and P. Cornillon, 1995: Temporal variation of meandering intensity and domain-wide lateral oscillations of the Gulf Stream. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 13 603–13 613.
——, and ——, 1996a: Propagation of Gulf Stream meanders between 74° and 70°W. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,26, 205–224.
——, and ——, 1996b: Propagation and growth of Gulf Stream meanders between 75° and 45°W. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,26, 225–241.
Lozier, M. S., and D. Bercovici, 1992: Particle exchange in an unstable jet. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,22, 1506–1516.
——, T. J. Bold, and A. S. Bower, 1996: The influence of propagating waves on cross-stream excursions. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,26, 1915–1923.
Meyers, S. D., 1994: Cross-frontal mixing in a meandering jet. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 1641–1646.
Miller, P. D., C. K. R. T. Jones, A. M. Rogerson, and L. J. Pratt, 1997: Quantifying transport in numerically generated vector fields. Physica D, in press.
Pierrehumbert, R. T., 1991: Chaotic mixing of tracer and vorticity by modulated travelling Rossby waves. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn.,58, 285–319.
Pratt, L. J., M. S. Lozier, and N. Beliakova, 1995: Parcel trajectories in quasigeostrophic jets: Neutral modes. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 1451–1466.
Samelson, R. M., 1992: Fluid exchange across a meandering jet. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,22, 431–440.
Song, T., T. Rossby, and E. Carter, 1995: Lagrangian studies of fluid exchange between the Gulf Stream and surrounding waters. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 46–63.
Wiggins, S., 1992: Chaotic Transport in Dynamical Systems. Springer-Verlag, 301 pp.