The research reported here was done with financial support from NASA Grants JPL 958123 and NAG 5-22205. Discussions with Yves Tourre, Robert Weisberg, George Philander, and David Halpern, while the work was in progress, are gratefully acknowledged.
Benanda, R., 1993: PO. DAAC merged GDR (TOPEX/Poseidon) users’ handbook. Version 1.0, JPL Publ. D-11007; 84 pp.
Cartwright, D. E., 1982: The tidal signal in inverted echo-sounder records. Deep-Sea Res.,29A, 767–784.
Düing, W., P. Hisard, E. J. Katz, J. Knauss, J. Meincke, K. V. Moroshkin, G. Philander, A. Rybnikov, S. Thorpe, and K. Voight, 1975: Meanders and long waves in the equatorial Atlantic. Nature,257, 280–284.
Garzoli, S. L., and E. J. Katz, 1981: Observations of inertia-gravity waves in the Atlantic from inverted echo sounders during FGGE. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,11, 1463–1477.
Halpern, D., R. A. Knox, and D. S. Luther, 1988: Observations of 20-day period meridional current oscillations in the upper ocean along the Pacific equator. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,18, 1514–1534.
Horel, J. D., 1984: Complex principal component analysis: Theory and examples. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,23, 1660–1673.
Katz, E. J., 1987a: Equatorial Kelvin waves in the Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 1894–1898.
——, 1987b: Seasonal response of the sea surface to the wind in the equatorial Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 1885–1893.
——, R. Belevich, J. Bruce, V. Bubnov, J. Cochrane, W. Düing, P. Hisard, H. U. Lass, J. Meincke, A. deMesquita, L. Miller, and A. Rybnikov, 1977: Zonal pressure gradient along the equatorial Atlantic. J. Mar. Res.,35 (2), 293–307.
——, J. G. Bruce, and B. D. Petrie, 1979: Salt and mass flux in the Atlantic Equatorial Undercurrent. Deep-Sea Res.,26, (G Suppl. II), 137–160.
——, A. Busalacchi, M. Bushnell, F. Gonznalez, L. Gourdeau, M. McPhaden, and J. Picaut, 1995: A comparison of coincidental time series of the ocean surface height by satellite altimeter, mooring and inverted echo sounder. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 25101–25108.
Knox, R. A., and D. Halpern, 1982: Long range Kelvin wave propagation of transport variations in Pacific Ocean equatorial currents. J. Mar. Res.,40, 329–339.
Legeckis, R., 1977: Long waves in the eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean: A view from a geostationary satellite. Science,197, 1179–1181.
——, and G. Reverdin, 1987: Long waves in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean during 1983. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 2835–2842.
Philander, S. G. H., 1976: Instabilities of zonal equatorial currents. J. Geophys. Res.,81, 3725–3735.
——, 1981: The response of equatorial oceans to a relaxation of the trade winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,11, 176–189.
——, 1990: El Niño, La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation. Academic Press, 289 pp.
Proehl, J. A., 1996: Linear stability of equatorial zonal flows. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,26, 601–621.
Qiao, L., and R. H. Weisberg, 1995: Tropical instability wave kinematics: Observations from the Tropical Instability Wave Experiment. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 8677–8692.
Rinkel, M. O., 1969: Proc. Symp. Oceanography Fish. Resources Tropical Atlantic. UNESCO, Paris, France, 193–212.
Weisberg, R. H., and T. Y. Tang, 1987: Further studies on the response of the equatorial thermocline in the Atlantic Ocean to the seasonally varying trade winds. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 3709–3727.
——, and T. J. Weingartner, 1988: Instability waves in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,18, 1641–1657.
——, and T. Y. Tang, 1990: A linear analysis of equatorial Atlantic Ocean thermocline variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,20, 1813–1825.