We would like to thank Dr. Youichi Tanimoto for providing the wind stress, heat flux, and SST data used in this study. We would also like to thank Dr. Toshio Suga and other members of Physical Oceanography Group, Tohoku University, for many valuable discussions. Kuroshio transport data provided by Dr. Masaki Kawabe were useful. Dr. Frederick M. Bingham did careful and extensive English editing and gave useful comments. Comments and encouragement from anonymous reviewers and editor Dr. Dennis W. Moore were particularly helpful in improving this manuscript. This study was made as a part of “Data Analysis of the Oceanic Variability of the Midlatitude North Pacific,” which was financially supported by the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, and as a part of the J-GOOS, which was financially supported by the Japanese Administration of Education, Science and Culture.
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