Conversations with R. Saravanan, C. Deser, J. Hurrell, and R. Greatbatch have been extremely valuable in the development of this study. All the computations have been carried out on SUN sparc stations. We would like to thank T. Vukicevic for making her workstation available for most of the computations. AC has been supported by a CSMP postdoctoral fellowship during the course of most of this work. She has also been partially supported by NOAA Grant DOCNA56GP02301.
Anderson, G. E., and J. Willebrand, 1992: Recent advances in modeling the ocean circulation and its effect on climate. Rep. Prog. Phys.,55, 1–37.
Bretherton, F. P., 1982: Ocean climate modeling. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 11, Pergamon, 93–129.
Bryan, F., 1986: High latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric circulations. Nature,323, 301–304.
——, 1987: Parameter sensitivity of primitive equation ocean general circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,17, 970–985.
Bryan, K., 1969: Climate and the ocean circulation. III. The ocean model. Mon. Wea. Rev.,97, 806–827.
——, and M. D. Cox, 1972: An approximate equation of state for numerical models of ocean circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,2, 510–514.
Capotondi, A., and R. Saravanan, 1996: Sensitivity of the thermohaline circulation to surface buoyancy forcing in a two-dimensional ocean model. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,26, 1039–1058.
Chen, F., and M. Ghil, 1995: Interdecadal variability of the thermohaline circulation and high-latitude surface fluxes. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 2547–2568.
Cox, M. D., 1984: A primitive equation, 3-dimensional model of the ocean. GFDL Ocean Group Tech. Rep. 1, 56 pp. [Available from Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NOAA, Princeton University, P.O. Box 308, Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08540.].
Delworth, T., S. Manabe, and R. J. Stouffer, 1993: Interdecadal variations of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate,6, 1993–2011.
Deser, C., and M. L. Blackmon, 1993: Surface climate variations over the North Atlantic Ocean during winter: 1900–1989. J. Climate,6, 1743–1753.
Dickson, R. R., J. Meincke, S. A. Malmherg, and A. J. Lee, 1993: The “Great Salinity Anomaly” in the northern North Atlantic 1968–1982. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 20, Pergamon Press, 103–151.
Greatbatch, R. J., and S. Zhang, 1995: An interdecadal oscillation in an idealized ocean basin forced by constant heat flux. J. Climate,8, 81–91.
Griffies, S. M., and E. Tziperman, 1995: A linear thermohaline oscillator driven by stochastic atmospheric forcing. J. Climate,8, 2440–2453.
Haney, R. L., 1971: Surface thermal boundary condition for ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,1, 241–248.
Hasselman, K., 1976: Stochastic climate models. Part I: Theory. Tellus,28, 473–485.
Kushnir, Y., 1994: Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions. J. Climate,7, 141–157.
Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, and T. P. Boyer, 1994: Interannual variability of temperature at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean. Science,266, 96–99.
Lorenz, E. N., 1973: On the existence of extended range predictability. J. Appl. Meteor.,12, 543–546.
Marotzke, J., 1989: Instabilities and multiple steady states of the thermohaline circulation. Ocean Circulations Models: Combining Data and Dynamics, D. T. L. Anderson and J. Willebrand, Eds., Kluwer Academic, 501–511.
Mikolajewicz, U., and K. Maier-Reimer, 1990: Internal secular variability in an ocean general circulation model. Climate Dyn.,4, 145–156.
——, and ——, 1994: Mixed boundary conditions in ocean general circulation models and their influence on the stability of the model’s conveyor belt. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 22 633–22 644.
Mysak, L. A., D. K. Manak, and R. F. Marsden, 1990: Sea-ice anomalies observed in the Greenland and Labrador seas during 1901–1984 and their relation to an interdecadal Arctic climate cycle. Climate Dyn.,5, 111–133.
Rahmstorf, S., and J. Willebrand, 1995: The role of temperature feedback in stabilizing the thermohaline circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 787–805.
Saravanan, R., and J. C. McWilliams, 1995: Multiple equilibria, natural variability, and climate transitions in an idealized ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate,8, 2296–2323.
——, and ——, 1996a: Stochasticity and spatial resonance in interdecadal climate fluctuations. J. Climate, in press.
——, and ——, 1996b: Advective ocean–atmosphere interaction: An analytical stochastic model with implications for decadal variability. J. Climate, in press.
Treguier, A. M., and B. L. Hua, 1987: Oceanic quasi-geostrophic turbulence forced by stochastic wind fluctuations. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,17, 397–411.
Trenberth, K. E., and C. Guillemot, 1996: Evaluation of the atmospheric moisture and hydrological cycle in the NCEP reanalyses. NCAR Tech. Note TN-430+STR, 300 pp.
Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 784–812.
Weaver, A. J., and E. S. Sarachik, 1991: Evidence for decadal variability in an ocean general circulation model: An advective mechanism. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,21, 1470–1493.
——, and T. M. C. Hughes, 1994: Rapid interglacial climate fluctuations driven by North Atlantic ocean circulation. Nature,367, 447–450.
——, J. Marotzke, P. F. Cummins, and E. S. Sarachik, 1993: Stability and variability of the thermohaline circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,23, 39–60.
——, S. M. Aura, and P. G. Myres, 1994: Interdecadal variability in an idealized model of the North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 12 423–12 441.
Willebrand, J., 1993: Forcing the ocean with heat and freshwater fluxes. Energy and Water Cycles in the Climate System, E. Raschke, Ed., Springer-Verlag, 215–233.
Zhang, S., R. J. Greatbatch, and C. A. Lin, 1993: A reexamination of the polar halocline catastrophe and implications for coupled ocean–atmosphere modelling. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,23, 1389–1410.