The results of the Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie coupled GCM integration were kindly made available to us by J. von Storch, and the Bermuda temperature data by T. M. Joyce, who are gratefully acknowledged. This research was supported in part by grants from the European Community (EV5V-CT94-0538 and ENV4-CT95-0101) and the PNEDC, and by the United States Office of Naval Research. One of us (EZ) was supported by a bursary from the European Community. Some of this work was done while CF was visiting the Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research at the University of Hawaii.
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