We wish to thank A. Semtner for providing the ZH96 code, M. Maltrud and C. A. Lai for Arctic datasets, and A. Hagberg for many helpful discussions. We are grateful to S. Piacsek for providing Arctic wind stress data and comments on the manuscript. This work has been supported by the DOE CHAMMP Program. We also thank the Center for Nonlinear Studies and the DOE HPCC-NLS program for technical support.
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