The authors would like to thank Dr. Curtis Collins and the crew of the R/V Pt. Sur for their assistance with data collection, and Tarry Rago, Paul Jessen, and Mike Cook for their help with data processing as well as collection. Ship time for both cruises was sponsored by the Oceanographer of the Navy, via the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, in support of graduate education at NPS. We thank MBARI for providing the ADCP data used in Fig. 1. Dr. Petruncio was supported by an Office of Naval Research Graduate Fellowship during his graduate studies, and Dr. Rosenfeld was supported by MBARI during much of the time she worked on this project. Support from ONR Contracts N0001495WR30022 (Paduan), N000149310403 (Rosenfeld), and N0001497WR30009 (Paduan and Rosenfeld) is also gratefully acknowledged.
Baines, P. G., 1974: The generation of internal tides over steep continental slopes. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London,277, 27–58.
——, 1986: Internal tides, internal waves, and near-inertial motions. Baroclinic Processes on Continental Shelves, C. N. K. Mooers, Ed., Amer. Geophys. Union, 19–31.
Barbee, W. B., J. G. Dworski, J. D. Irish, L. H. Larsen, and J. M. Rattray, 1975: Measurements of internal waves of tidal frequency near a continental boundary. J. Geophys. Res.,80, 1965–1974.
Battisti, D. S., and A. J. Clarke, 1982: A simple method for estimating barotropic tidal currents on continental margins with specific application to the M2 tide off the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,12, 8–16.
Breaker, L. C., and W. W. Broenkow, 1994: The circulation of Monterey Bay and related processes. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, Vol. 32, A. D. Ansell, R. N. Gibson, and M. Barnes, Eds., UCL Press, 1–64.
Brink, K. H., 1988: On the effect of bottom friction on internal waves. Contin. Shelf Res.,8, 397–403.
Broenkow, W. W., and S. J. McKain, 1972: Tidal oscillations at the head of Monterey Submarine Canyon and their relation to oceanographic sampling and the circulation of water in Monterey Bay. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories Tech. Pub. 72-05, 42 pp. [Available from Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, P.O. Box 450, Moss Landing, CA 95039.].
Cacchione, D., and C. Wunsch, 1974: Experimental study of internal waves over a slope. J. Fluid Mech.,66, 223–239.
Caster, W. A., 1969: Near-bottom currents in Monterey Submarine Canyon and on the adjacent shelf. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, 203 pp. [Available from Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5000.].
Coelho, E. F., 1994: Tidal dynamics and mixing over steep topography. Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, 213 pp. [Available from Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5000.].
DeWitt, L. M., M. D. Levine, C. A. Paulson, and W. V. Burt, 1986:Semidiurnal internal tide in JASIN: Observations and simulation. J. Geophys. Res.,91, 2581–2592.
Dooley, J. J., 1968: An investigation of near-bottom currents in the Monterey Submarine Canyon. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, 58 pp. [Available from Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5000.].
Drakopolous, P., and R. F. Marsden, 1993: The internal tide off the west coast of Vancouver Island. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,23, 758–775.
Eriksen, C. C., 1982: Observations of internal wave reflection off sloping bottoms. J. Geophys. Res.,87, 525–538.
——, 1985: Implications of ocean bottom reflection for internal wave spectra and mixing. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,15, 1145–1156.
Filloux, J. H., and R. L. Snyder, 1979: A study of tides, setup, and bottom friction in a shallow semi-enclosed basin. Part I: Field experiment and harmonic analysis. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,9, 158–169.
Foreman, M. G. G., 1977: Manual for tidal heights analysis and prediction. Institute of Ocean Sciences, Patricia Bay Pacific Mar. Sci. Rep. 77-10, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Patricia Bay, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 97 pp.
——, 1978: Manual for tidal currents analysis and prediction. Institute Of Ocean Sciences, Patricia Bay Pacific Mar. Sci. Rep. 78-6, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Patricia Bay, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 70 pp.
——, 1995: Tide removal requiring a dynamical interpretation. Quantitative Skill Assessment for Coastal Ocean Models, D. R. Lynch and A. M. Davies, Eds., Amer. Geophys. Union, 224–239.
Gardner, W. D., 1989: Periodic resuspension in Baltimore Canyon by focusing of internal waves. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 18 185–18 194.
Garrett, C., and W. Munk, 1975: Space-time scales of internal waves:A progress report. J. Geophys. Res.,80, 291–297.
——, and ——, 1979: Internal waves in the ocean. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.,11, 339–369.
——, and D. Gilbert, 1988: Estimates of vertical mixing by internal waves reflected off a sloping bottom. Small-Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the Ocean, J. C. J. Nihoul and B. M. Jamart, Eds., Elsevier, 405–423.
Gatje, P. H. and D. D. Pizinger, 1965: Bottom current measurements in the head of Monterey Submarine Canyon. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, 61 pp. [Available from Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5000.].
Gilbert, D., 1993: A search for evidence of critical internal wave reflection on the continental rise and slope off Nova Scotia. Atmos.-Ocean,31, 99–122.
——, and C. Garrett, 1989: Implications for ocean mixing of internal wave scattering off irregular topography. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,19, 1716–1729.
Gill, A. E., 1982: Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press, 662 pp.
Godin, G., 1972: The Analysis of Tides. University of Toronto Press, 264 pp.
——, 1991: The analysis of tides and currents. Tidal Hydrodynamics, B. B. Parker, Ed., John Wiley and Sons, 675–709.
Gordon, R. L. and N. F. Marshall, 1976: Submarine canyons: Internal wave traps? Geophys. Res. Lett.,3, 622–624.
Griffin, D. A., and J. H. Middleton, 1992: Upwelling and internal tides over the inner New South Wales continental shelf. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 14 389–14 405.
Heard, J. A., 1992: A kinematic model of baroclinic tidal currents at the head of Monterey Submarine Canyon. M.S. thesis, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, San Jose State University, 59 pp. [Available from Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, P.O. Box 450, Moss Landing, CA 95039.].
Hickey, B. M., 1995: Coastal submarine canyons. Proc. ‘Aha Huliko’a, Hawaiian Winter Workshop, Topographic Effects in the Ocean, Honolulu, HI, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 95–110.
Hollister, J. E., 1975: Currents in Monterey Submarine Canyon. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, 86 pp. [Available from Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5000.].
Holloway, P. E., 1984: On the semidiurnal internal tide at a shelf-break region on the Australian North West Shelf. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,14, 1787–1799.
——, 1991: On dissipation of internal tides. Tidal Hydrodynamics, B. B. Parker, Ed., John Wiley and Sons, 449–468.
Hotchkiss, F. S., and C. H. Wunsch, 1982: Internal waves in Hudson Canyon with possible geological implications. Deep-Sea Res.,29, 415–442.
Hunkins, K., 1988: Mean and tidal currents in Baltimore Canyon. J. Geophys. Res.,93, 6917–6929.
Huthnance, J. M., 1989: Internal tides and waves near the continental shelf edge. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn.,48, 81–106.
——, 1995: Circulation, exchange, and mixing at the ocean-shelf boundary. Proc. ‘Aha Huliko’a, Hawaiian Winter Workshop, Topographic Effects in the Ocean, Honolulu, HI School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 85–93.
——, and P. G. Baines, 1982: Tidal currents in the northwest African upwelling region. Deep-Sea Res.,29, 285–306.
Ivey, G. N., and R. I. Nokes, 1989: Vertical mixing due to the breaking of critical internal waves on sloping boundaries. J. Fluid Mech.,204, 479–500.
Joyce, T. M., 1989: On in situ “calibration” of shipboard ADCPs. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,6, 169–172.
Konyaev, K. V., K. D. Sabinin, and A. N. Serebryany, 1995: Large-amplitude internal waves at the Mascarene Ridge in the Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res.,42, 2075–2091.
Largier, J. L., 1994: The internal tide over the shelf inshore of Cape Point Valley, South Africa. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 10 023–10 034.
Lazanoff, S. M., 1971: An evaluation of a numerical water elevation and tidal current prediction model applied to Monterey Bay. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, 148 pp. [Available from Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5000.].
Lentz, S. J., 1993: The accuracy of tide-gauge measurements at subtidal frequencies. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,10, 238–245.
Maas, L. R. M., and F. A. Lam, 1995: Geometric focusing of internal waves. J. Fluid Mech.,300, 1–41.
McKay, D. A., 1970: A determination of surface currents in the vicinity of the Monterey Submarine Canyon by the electromagnetic method. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, 74 pp. [Available from Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5000.].
Miles, J. W., 1972: Kelvin waves on oceanic boundaries. J. Fluid Mech.,55, 113–127.
Munk, W., F. Snodgrass, and M. Wimbush, 1970: Tides offshore: Transition from California coastal to deep-sea waters. Geophys. Fluid Dyn.,1, 161–235.
Münnich, M., 1996: The influence of bottom topography on internal seiches in stratified media. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans,23, 257–266.
Niiler, P. P., 1968: On the internal tidal motions in the Florida Straits. Deep-Sea Res.,15, 113–123.
Njus, I. J., 1968: An investigation of the environmental factors affecting the near-bottom currents in Monterey Submarine Canyon. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, 80 pp. [Available from Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5000.].
Noble, M., L. K. Rosenfeld, R. L. Smith, J. V. Gardner, and R. C. Beardsley, 1987: Tidal currents seaward of the northern California continental shelf. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 1733–1744.
Paduan, J. D., D. E. Barrick, B. J. Lipa, and E. T. Petruncio, 1995: Surface currents within and offshore of Monterey Bay as mapped by a multiple-site HF Radar (CODAR) network. Proc. Fifth Working Conference on Current Measurement, St. Petersburg, FL, IEEE, 137–142.
Park, Y., 1986: Semidiurnal internal tides on the continental shelf off Abidjan. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,16, 1585–1592.
Petrie, B., 1975: M2 surface and internal tides on the Scotian shelf and slope. J. Mar. Res.,33, 303–323.
Petruncio, E. T., 1993: Characterization of tidal currents in Monterey Bay from remote and in-situ measurements. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, 113 pp. [Available from Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5000.].
——, 1996: Observations and modeling of the internal tide in a submarine canyon. Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, 181 pp. [Available from Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5000.].
Pingree, R. D., and A. L. New, 1989: Downward propagation of internal tidal energy into the Bay of Biscay. Deep-Sea Res.,36, 735–758.
——, and ——, 1991: Abyssal penetration and bottom reflection of internal tidal energy in the Bay of Biscay. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,21, 28–39.
Prandle, D., 1982: The vertical structure of tidal currents. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn.,22, 29–49.
Prinsenberg, S. J., and J. M. Rattray, 1975: Effects of continental slope and variable Brünt-Väisälä frequency on the coastal generation of internal tides. Deep-Sea Res.,22, 251–263.
——, W. L. Wilmot and J. M. Rattray, 1974: Generation and dissipation of coastal internal tides. Deep-Sea Res.,21, 263–281.
Regal, R., and C. Wunsch, 1973: M2 tidal currents in the western North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res.,20, 493–502.
Rosenfeld, L. K., 1990: Baroclinic semidiurnal tidal currents over the continental shelf off Northern California. J. Geophys. Res.,95, 22 153–22 172.
——, and R. C. Beardsley, 1987: Barotropic semidiurnal tidal currents off northern California during the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE). J. Geophys. Res.,92, 1721–1732.
——, R. E. Schramm, J. B. Paduan, J. G. A. Hatcher, and T. Anderson, 1994: Hydrographic data collected in Monterey Bay during 1 September 1988 to 16 December 1992. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Tech. Rep. 94-15, 549 pp.
——, T. Anderson, G. Hatcher, J. Roughgarden and Y. Shkedy, 1995:Upwelling fronts and barnacle recruitment in central California. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Tech. Rep. 95-19, 102 pp.
Sandstrom, H., 1991: The origin of internal tides (a revisit). Tidal Hydrodynamics, B. B. Parker, Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 437–447.
Shea, R. E., and W. W. Broenkow, 1982: The role of internal tides in the nutrient enrichment of Monterey Bay, California. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci.,15, 57–66.
Shepard, F. P., N. F. Marshall, P. A. McLoughlin, and G. G. Sullivan, 1979: Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys. AAPG Studies in Geology No. 8, American Assoc. of Petroleum Geologists, 173 pp.
Sherwin, T. J., 1988: Analysis of an internal tide observed on the Malin Shelf, north of Ireland. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,18, 1035–1054.
Shih, H. H., and L. Baer, 1991: Some errors in tide measurement caused by the dynamic environment. Tidal Hydrodynamics, B. B. Parker, Ed., John Wiley and Sons, 641–671.
Slinn, D. N., and J. J. Riley, 1996: Turbulent mixing in the oceanic boundary layer caused by internal wave reflection from sloping terrain. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans,24, 51–62.
Tee, K.-T., 1982: The structure of three-dimensional tide-generating currents: Experimental verification of a theoretical model. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci.,14, 27–48.
Tisch, T. D., 1990: Seasonal variability of the geostrophic velocity and water mass structure off Point Sur, California,. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, 135 pp. [Available from Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5000.].
Torgrimson, G. M., and B. M. Hickey, 1979: Barotropic and baroclinic tides over the continental slope and shelf off Oregon. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,9, 945–961.
Werner, F. E., 1992: Tidal hydrodyamics, quantitative aspects. Encyclopedia of Earth System Science, Vol. 4, Academic Press, 351–367.
White, M., 1994: Tidal and subtidal variability in the sloping benthic boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 7851–7864.
Winant, C. D., and A. W. Bratkovich, 1981: Temperature and currents on the southern California shelf: A description of the variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,11, 71–86.
Wunsch, C. H., 1968: On the propagation of internal waves up a slope. Deep-Sea Res.,15, 251–258.
——, 1969: Progressive internal waves on slopes. J. Fluid Mech.,35, 131–144.
——, 1975: Internal tides in the ocean. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.,13, 167–182.
——, and S. Webb, 1979: The climatology of deep ocean internal waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,9, 235–243.