We thank Yukio Masumoto and Takashi Kagimoto for their help in running the model on the Hitachi supercomputer of the University of Tokyo. Comments by Dr. Julian McCreary and two anonymous referees greatly helped in improving the manuscript. We are thankful to Dr. D. P. Chambers for providing the T/P data and Drs. R. Lukas, H. Nakamura, and Y. Wakata for useful discussions. This study was supported by the Japan Ministry of Education, Science and Culture under contracts of the Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (06452085) and the International Scientific Research Program (05044034).
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